Chapter 3

01/06/20193:25 CH(Xem: 220)
Chapter 3


TIẾNG ANH CHO NGƯỜI MỚI HỌC PHẬT
Tác giảTrí Thành - Lê Văn Được
Nhà xuất bản Tổng Hợp Thành Phố Hồ Chí Minh 2018

 

CHAPTER 3

UNDER THE BODHI TREE

(Dưới rặng Bồ Đề)

UNIT 9:

SEARCHING FOR TEACHERS

(Tìm vị chân sư)

After leaving the palace, Siddhartha was determined to discover the meaning of existence. He studied with the best teachers of the day, and lived the hard life of an ascetic. Yet he didn't feel any closer to the Truth. The turning point came when he almost died of hunger. Soon after that, he attained enlightenment under the Bodhi tree.

At the age of 29, Siddhartha began the homeless life of a monk. From Kapilavatthu, he walked south to the city of Rajagaha, the capital of the Magadha country. The king of this country was named Bimbisara. The morning after Siddhartha arrived, he went to the city and obtained his meal for the day by going from house-to-house begging with an alms-bowl.

Siddhartha wandered along the Ganges River looking for spiritual teachers. Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta were considered to be the best teachers in meditation at that time so Siddhartha went to study with them.

First he studied under Uddaka Ramaputta, then under Alara Kalama. Very soon he had learnt all they had to teach, but he had not learnt to end suffering. He said to himself, "I must find the truth on my own".

NEW WORDS

existence /Ig'zIs.t∂nts/ noun: sự hiện hữu

  • Many people realized the existence of Buddha. [U]

(Nhiều người nhận ra sự hiện hữu của Đức Phật.)

ascetic /∂'set.Ik, -'se-/ adjective, noun: khổ hạnh

  • He lived a very ascetic life.

(Ngài sống cuộc đời khổ hạnh.)

Truth /tru:q/ noun [U]: chân lý

  • The truth is the real facts about a situation.

(Chân lý là sự kiện có thật về tình huống.)

turning point (n): bước ngoặt

  • The turning point in his career came when he chose to leave the palace.

(Bước ngoặt trong sự nghiệp là lúc ngài chọn từ bỏ cung điện.)

hunger /'hLη.g∂r, -g∂`/ noun [U]: cơn đói

  • All over the world, people are dying of hunger every day.

(Khắp thế giới, người ta đang chết đói mỗi ngày.)

attain /∂'teIn/ verb [T] formal: đạt được, đạt tới

  • He attained the highest grade in his meditation.

(Ngài đạt đuợc cấp độ cao nhất trong thiền định.)

enlightenment /In'laI.t∂n.m∂nt, -∂n-/ noun [U]: sự giác ngộ

  • He can give you some enlightenment on life.

(Ngài có thể ban cho con sự giác ngộ trong đời.)

Bodhi (n): Bồ-đề

homeless /'h∂Um.l∂s, 'hoUm-/ adjective [not gradable]: không nhà cửa, vô gia cư

  • Accommodation needs to be found for thousands of homeless families.

(Cần tìm chỗ ở cho hàng ngàn gia đình vô gia cư.)

Kapilavatthu (n): Ca-tì-la-vệ

Rajagaha (n): Vương-xá

Magadha (n): Ma-kiệt-đà

Bimbisara (n): Bình-sa-vương

obtain /∂b'teIn/ verb [T]: thu được

  • You must first obtain permission from the Sanga.

(Đầu tiên bạn phải được sự cho phép của nhóm tăng già.)

alms-bowl /ɑ:mz b∂l, boUl/ noun old use(n): bình bát khất thực

  • They walk for food with an alms bowl.

(Họ đi khất thực mang theo bình bát.)

wander /'wɔn.d∂r, 'wɔ:n.d∂`/ verb: đi lang thang, đi thơ thẩn

  • They spent the morning wandering around the old part of the city. [I]

(Họ dành buổi sáng lang thang quanh khu phố cổ.)

Ganges River (n): Sông Hằng

spiritual /'spIr.I.tju.∂l/ noun [C]: thần linh

  • The spiritual is a type of religion developed by African Americans in the US.

(Thần linh là loại tôn giáo do người Mỹ gốc Phi lập nên.)

Alara Kalama (n): tên vị đạo sĩ mà đức Thích-ca thọ giáo lần đầu tiên.

Uddaka Ramaputta (n): tên vị đạo sĩ mà đức Thích-ca thọ giáo lần thứ hai

consider /k∂n'sId.∂r, -∂`/ verb: cân nhắc, suy nghĩ

  • Don't make any decisions before you've considered the matter. [T]

(Đừng quyết định điều gì khi anh chưa cân nhắc vấn đề.)

I. PRONUNCIATION

  1. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others
  2. A. truth                 B. under                  C. hunger
  3. A. monk                B. country               C. from
  4. A. were                 B. said                     C. best
  5. A. learnt               B. river                    C. ascetic
  6. A. studied             B. walked                C. died
    1. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others
  7. A. existence    B. along                   C. wandered
  8. A. suffering     B. himself               C. homeless
  9. A. discover      B. attained              C. meditation
  10. A. arrived        B. considered         C. spiritual
  11. A. almost         B. enlightenment   C. determined

II. READING:

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. Ascetics made him close to the Truth.
  2. He became The Buddha when he was 29.
  3. Bimbisara was the leader of Anuradhapura.
  4. Siddhartha stayed on the Ganges River study with teachers.
  5. Siddartha got nothing from them.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. What did the prince decide to do?
  2. Why did he attain the enlightenment?
  3. What is Rajagaha?
  4. How did Siddhartha get food?
  5. Who was first teacher Siddartha had the lecture?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

  1. Magadha

 

  1. Alara Kalama
  2. ascetic
  3. alms-bowl

 

  1. meditation

 

  1. suffering

 

  1. Ganges River

 

  1. Truth

 

  1. enlightenment
  2. The Bodhi Tree

a. living a simple life, often for religious reasons

b. the product of serious thought

c. the quality of being true

d. the highest spiritual state that can be achieved.

e. a large and very old Sacred Fig tree

f. experience in physical or mental pain

g. formed one of the sixteen great countries  in ancient India

h. a container of food given to monks

i. a religious teacher.

j. the major river of the India

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

[GANGES RIVER - THE BODHI TREE - AJATASATTU - UDDAKA RAMAPUTTA - BIMBISARA]

  1. ............. located in Bodh Gaya Rajagaha is a city.
  2. ............. flows east through northern India into Bangladesh.
  3. ............. was the king of Magadha.
  4. Kosala gave birth to ..............
  5. ............. lived in a forest near Rajagriha.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

  1. The Bodhi Tree was ............. Nalanda district ............. the Indian state ............. Bihar.
  2. Uddaka Ramaputta was a master ............. yogic meditation
  3. Rajagriha was the first capital ............. the kingdom ............. Magadha.
  4. Bimbisara became the king ............. the age ............. fifteen.
  5. Kosala was a sister ............. the king Pasenadi.

B. Negative Adjectives

Siddhartha began the homeless life of a monk.

Prefixes

Suffixes

unable - impossible - irregular

homeless

Drills: select ONE strange negative adjective from the others

  1. A. liveless          B. undetermined    C. uncover
  2. A. existingless   B. meaningless       C. unday
  3. A. hardiless       B. unclose               C. hungriless
  4. A. inenlighted   B. treeless               C. immonkly
  5. A. kingless         B. unnamed            C. immeal

C. Comparison

Adjectives and adverbs sometimes have a comparative and superlative form:
short forms + er / est

He didn't feel any closer to the Truth.

Her robe's shorter than it was.
Our new pagoda is much bigger than where we stayed before.
She's much happier in meditation.
His Dharma is much better now.
They arrived sooner than expected.
The weather's getting much worse.

-irregular forms:

better / the best

worse / the worst

more / the most

less / the least

farther / further , the farthest

The Ganger River is the longest in India.

He studied with the best teachers of the day

Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta were considered to be the best teachers in meditation at that time.

They buy the best statue I've ever had.

Others form the comparative/superlative with more/most:
more / the most + long forms

The exam was more difficult than it would be.

Please act more carefully.
What's the most suitable dharma you can follow?

Drills: Fill in the blanks with ONE form of comparison

[HOLY - MORE - GREATEST - MOST - MORE - COMPLETE]

  1. Bimbisara was the ............. patron of Gotama Buddha.
  2. The Ganger River was considered ............. than The Mekong
  3. Her sister is fun-loving, while she is............ascetic
  4. Gautama Buddha achieved ............. enlightenment.
  5. The Bodhi tree is found ............. holy by its heart-shaped leaves.

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Put the words in order of a complete sentence

  1. a 2,510 km river / is / the Ganger River / in the western Himalayas.
  2. into the Mauryan Empire / eventually / Rajagriha / evolved.
  3. a very ascetic life / many / in India / live.
  4. Bimbisara’s wife / a princess of / was / Kosala.
  5. practiced / meditation / The Buddha / for weeks / walking.

B. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation

  1. Bimbisara / reign / fifty-two years.
  2. Bimbisara / abdicate / throne / favour / son / Ajatasattu.
  3. Rajagriha / be / valley / surrounded / five hills
  4. Siddhartha Gautama / seat / The Bodhi Tree.
  5. The term / "Bodhi tree" / be / applied / currently / existing trees.

UNIT 10:

SIX YEARS OF AUSTERE LIFE

(Sáu năm khổ hạnh)

With his five companions, Siddhartha went to a forest near the village of Uruvela. Here, several holy men were living in and tormenting themselves with extreme frugality.

They believed that if they put their bodies through terrible physical hardship, they would understand the truth. Some slept on a bed of thorns. Some stood on their head. They all ate so little they were just skin and bones.

Siddhartha found a quiet spot on the banks of a nearby river. There he practised the most severe hardship. He slept on a bed of thorns. He ate only one grain of wheat and one sesame seed a day.

At other times, he would eat nothing at all. His body wasted away until there was only a layer of thin skin covering his bones. Birds made nests in his matted hair and layers of dust covered his dried-up body. Siddhartha sat completely still, not even brushing away insects.

NEW WORDS

Uruvelva (skt): Ưu-lâu-tần-loa (n): thị trấn xứ Serãni

torment /'tɔ:.ment, 'tɔ:r-/ noun [U]: sự đau khổ

  • After six years in torment, he decided it was time to change the method.

(Sau sáu năm gian khổ, ngài quyết định đến lúc phải thay đổi phương pháp.)

poverty /'pɔv.∂.ti, 'pɔ:.v∂`.i/ noun [U]: cái nghèo

  • Many people in the city live in poverty.

(Nhiều người thành phố sống trong đói nghèo.)

hardship /'hɑ:d.òIp, 'hɑ:rd-/ noun: sự khó khăn

  • Hardship is part of life in this war.

(Nỗi khó khăn là một phần cuộc sống lúc chiến tranh.)

bed /bed/ noun [C]: nền, giường, lớp

  • Many strange plants and fish live on the sea bed.

(Nhiều loài thảo mộc, cá lạ sống trên thềm lục địa.)

nail /neIl/ noun [C]: đinh, chông, móng

  • They were sitting on nails.

(Họ đang ngồi trên chông.)

skin /skIn/ noun: da

  • Strong sun is bad for the skin. [U]

(Nắng gay gắt không tốt cho da.)

bone /b∂Un, boUn/ noun: xương

  • He was so thin that we could see his bones. [C]

(Ngài quá ốm đến nỗi ta có thể nhìn thấy xương.)

nearby /nI∂'baI, nIr-/ adverb, adjective: gần đó

  • I noticed a queue of monks standing nearby.

(Tôi để ý một dòng các tăng sĩ đứng gần đây.)

practise UK and ANZ, US usually practice /'præk.tIs, -Is/ verb: tập luyện

  • He practises his meditation for an hour every noon. [T]

(Mỗi trưa, ngài tập thiền định một giờ.)

severe /sI'vI∂r, -'vIr/ adjective -r, -st: khắc nghiệt, đau đớn

  • He's suffering from a severe pain in body.

(Ngài đang chịu đựng nỗi đau khắc nghiệt trên cơ thể.)

thorn /qɔ:n, qɔ:rn/ noun [C]: gai

  • He was a thorn in the Brahma.

(Ngài là cái gai của người Bà-la-môn.)

grain /greIn/ noun: hạt

  • He didn't have so much as a grain of sesame to eat every day. [C]

(Mỗi ngày, ngài không dùng hơn một hạt mè.)

wheat /wi:t/ noun [U]: lúa mì

  • Wheat is a crop for millions of people across the world.

(Lúa mì là hoa màu cho hàng triệu người trên thế giới.)

sesame /'ses.∂.mi/ noun [U]: 

  • Sesame has oil in it.

(Có dầu trong .)

seed /si:d/ noun [C]: hạt giống

  • Sowing whichever seeds will get the same fruits.

(Gieo nhân nào gặt quả đó.)

waste away phrasal verb [I]: còm cõi dần

  • It is not death he fears, but wasting away, becoming dependent.

(Ngài không chết vì sợ, mà chỉ sợ bị ốm đói.)

layer /'leI.∂r, -∂`/ noun [C]: lớp

  • layer of skin peeled off his body.

(Một lớp da tróc khỏi cơ thể của ngài.)

nest /nest/ noun [C]: tổ chim

  • Cuckoos are famous for laying their eggs in the nests of other birds.

(Chim cu nổi danh về việc dùng tổ chim khác để đẻ trứng.)

matted /'mæt.Id, 'mæ-/ adjective: rối, quấn vào nhau

  • Birds were revealing a matted dark hair on his head.

(Loài chim được phát hiện trên mái tóc đen bện của ngài.)

dust /dLst/ noun [U]: bụi đất

  • His body was covered in dust.

(Đất bám đầy cơ thể ngài.)

dried-up /draId/ (a): khô rang

  • Lack of water, his body was dried up.

(Cơ thể ngài khô khốc do thiếu nước.)

still /stIl/ adjective -er, -est: yên tĩnh

  • I want you to stay as still as a statue.

(Tôi muốn anh ngồi yên như bức tượng.)

brush /brLò/ noun [C]: bàn chải

  • You'll need a brush for your mind every day.

(Bạn cần chải rửa tâm mỗi ngày.)

insect /'In.sekt/ noun [C]: loài thấp sinh, côn trùng

  • Ants, beetles, butterflies and flies are all insects.

(Kiến, bọ, bướm, ruồi là các côn trùng.)

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. brushing             B. through               C. truth
  2. A. seed                    B. head                    C. wheat
  3. A. only                    B. found                  C. bones
  4. A. banks                  B. layer                    C. wasted
  5. A. thin                     B. there                   C. thorns

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. village           B. several             C. themselves
  2. A. believed        B. sesame             C. completely
  3. A. covered         B. practised          C. understand
  4. A. extreme         B. nearby              C. terrible
  5. A. physical         B. tormenting       C. severe

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. They stayed a terrible condition.
  2. Siddhartha practised the most severe hardship at a quiet spot on the banks of a river.
  3. Siddhartha slept on a bed of nails.
  4. He was skinny.
  5. Siddhartha sat impatiently.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. Who did Siddhartha enter a wild place with?
  2. What would they understand the truth?
  3. What were their physical hardship?
  4. What did Siddhartha need for food?
  5. What were there in his hair and on his body?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

21. torment

22. poverty

23. hardship

24. practice

 

25. severe

26. waste away

27. insect

28. sesame

29. nearby

30. still

a. to gradually get weaker

b. the condition of being extremely poor

c. difficult conditions of life

d. to do something regularly in order to become skilled at it

e. close

f. not moving

g. causing very great pain

h. any very small animal

i. cause great physical pain

j. a herb grown for its oil

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

[ENLIGHTENMENT - EXTREME - URUVELA - SESAME - ASCETIC]

  1. Siddharta with his fellow young monks traveled to ............. Jungle.
  2. Siddharta’s ...........acts were only done for nothing.
  3. Siddartha trained his body his mind in the modes of the most ............. life.
  4. Siddartha he ate each day one ............. grain only.
  5. Siddharta Gautama is attained ............. under the Bodhi Tree.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

  1. One ............. three brothers lived ............. Uruvelā.
  2. The Bodhisattva went ............. search ............. a better system.
  3. The Bodhi Tree ............. Bodhgaya is a direct descendent ............. the tree.
  4. Siddharta accepted milk and honey ............. a young woman.
  5. Siddartha arrived ............. the shore ............. deliverance

B. Rules

Adjective = Adverb

Siddhartha found a quiet spot on the banks of a nearby river.

Abstract Noun = Adj + ness / ship

They believed that if they put their bodies through terrible physical hardship

Phrasal Verbs

His body wasted away until there was only a layer of thin skin covering his bones.

Drills:

41 - 43. Find 3 words that have both adjective = adverb.

44 - 46. Write 3 abstract nouns having ness, ship.

47 - 50. Give 4 phrasal verbs with away

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Put the words in order of a complete sentence

  1. of Uruvela / came / The Bodhisattva / of five bhikkhus / to a settlement / in the jungle.
  2. sat down / the Bodhi Tree / Siddharta Gautama / beneath.
  3. the spiritual founder / of Buddhism / Siddhartha Gautama / is.
  4. Siddartha / accepted / enlightenment / generally / path to.
  5. is mentioned / of Magadha / the ancient kingdom / in the Ramayana.

B. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation

  1. The Bodhi tree / be / Anuradhapura.
  2. The Blessed One / see / life / those five men.
  3. Tebhātika-Jatilas / live / five hundred disciples.
  4. After 49 days / meditation, Siddharta / become / Buddha.
  5. Siddartha / seek / cross / ocean / birth / death.

—UNIT 11:

THE SONG OF THE LUTE

(Bài hát với cung đàn)

One evening, a group of young girls on their way home passed by Siddhartha who was sitting in meditation. They were playing lutes, a musical instrument, and singing. He thought, "When the strings of the lute are loose, its sound won't carry. When the strings are too tight, it breaks. When the strings are neither too loose nor too tight, the music is beautiful. I'm pulling my strings too tightly. I cannot find the Way to Truth living a life of luxury or with my body so weak."

Thus, he decided to give up self-torture. He came to know that this was not the correct way.

Soon after, while bathing in the river, Siddhartha was so weak that he fainted and fell. Sujata, a young village girl who lived by the river, saw him and brought him a bowl of rice and milk. After his meal, he immediately felt stronger and continued his meditation.

When his five companions saw him eat, they were disgusted, thinking he'd given up. So they left him.

NEW WORDS

pass by /pɑ:s, pæs/ verb: đi ngang qua

  • She sat looking out of the train window at the countryside passing by. [I]

(Nàng ngồi ngắm cảnh đồng quê chạy qua khung cửa xe lửa.)

lute /lu:t/ noun [C]: một loại đàn ghi-ta

  • Lutes were popular from the 14th to the 18th centuries in the West, but are still common in the Middle East.

(Đàn ghi ta cổ thông dụng từ thế kỉ 14 đến 18 ở phương Tây, nhưng vẫn còn dùng ở Trung Đông.

musical /'mju:.zI.k∂l/ adjective: thuộc âm nhạc

  • Mozart's musical compositions include symphonies and operas.

(Các sáng tác nhạc của Mozart gồm các bản giao hưởng và nhạc kịch.)

instrument /'In.str∂.m∂nt/ noun [C]: dụng cụ, nhạc khí

  • Which instrument do you play?

(Anh đang chơi nhạc khí nào?)

string /strIη/ noun: dây đàn

  • The parcel was held together with string. [U]

(Gói hàng được cột lại bằng dây.)

loose /lu:s/ adjective -r, -st: chùng, lỏng

  • Loose strings of a guitar do not give good sound.

(Dây đàn chùng không vang tiếng hay.)

sound /saUnd/ noun: âm thanh

  • Don't make a sound and stay absolutely still when praying. [C]

(Đừng làm ồn, cứ giữ yên tuyệt đối lúc cầu nguyện)

carry /'kær.i, 'ker-/ verb [T]: đem, mang đến

  • Don’t carry your boat when you reach the bank!

(Đừng mang chiếc bè khi đã qua sông!)

tight /taIt/ adjective, adverb: căng, chặt

  • Secutity was tight at yesterday’s ceremony.

(An ninh được thắt chặt vào buổi lễ kỷ niệm ngày hôm qua.)

break /breIk/ verb past simple broke, past participle broken: đứt

  • The dish fell to the floor and broke. [I]

(Cái đĩa rớt xuống đất bể.)

pull /pUl/ verb: kéo

  • Pulling is against pushing.

(Kéo ngược với đẩy.)

luxury /'lLk.ò∂r.i, -ò∂`-/ noun: sang trọng, xa xỉ

  • Anyone who lives in luxury will die for it. [U]

(Ai mà sống xa xỉ sẽ chết vì nó.)

torture /'tɑ:.tò∂r, 'tɑ:r.tò∂`/ noun: sự tra tấn, sự đau đớn

  • People rarely endure torture. [U]

(Người bình thường ít khi chịu đựng được sự tra tấn.)

weak /wi:k/ adjective -er, -est: yếu đuối

  • You feel weak if you haven't eaten properly.

(Bạn thấy yếu nếu không ăn đúng cách.)

self-torture (a): tự tập khổ hạnh

give something over/up to something, give obj over/up to phrasal verb [+ object +object]: từ bỏ

  • Give up your greediness!

(Hãy từ bỏ lòng tham!)

correct /k∂'rekt/ adjective: đúng, chính xác

  • He's very correct in his character.

(Ngài rất đúng đắn trong tính cách.)

bathe /beIð/ verb [I]: tắm

  • No body bathe in the same river twice.

(Không ai tắm cùng một dòng sông hai lần.)

faint /feInt/ verb [I]: bất tỉnh

  •  He faints at the sight of blood.

(Thấy máu, hắn bất tỉnh)

Sujata (n): Su-dà-ta

rice /raIs/ noun [U]: gạo

  • Rice is an important part of many people's diet.

(Gạo là một phần quan trọng trong thực đơn hang ngày của nhiều người.)

continue /k∂n'tIn.ju:/ verb: tiếp tục

  • Do you intend to continue (with) your studies?

(Anh có định học tiếp không.)

companion /k∂m'pæn.j∂n/ noun [C]: bạn đồng hành

  • The bowl had been his close companion.

(Chiếc bát khất thực là bạn đồng hành thân thiết của ngài.)

disgusted /dIs'gLs.tId/ adjective: phẫn nộ, chán ghét

  • People are disgusted at the way she treats their children.

(Người ta phẫn nộ với cách cô ta đối xử với trẻ con.)

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. breaks                B. weak                 C. meal
  2. A. brought              B. body                 C. bowl
  3. A. lutes                    B. soon                 C. loose
  4. A. young                 B. won't                C. stronger
  5. A. girl                      B. milk                  C. live

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. living                B. music               C. correct
  2. A. neither             B. luxury              C. continued
  3. A. immediately    B. companions    C. torture
  4. A. musical            B. beautiful          C. meditation
  5. A. instrument       B. disgusted         C. decided

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. They were playing music.
  2. The strings are too tight to break.
  3. His Way to Truth was expensive or unhealthy.
  4. He recovered his health from the milk.
  5. Five companions felt excited when he'd given up.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. What happened when Siddhartha was meditating?
  2. What did he keep in mind?
  3. What happened when the strings are strained enough?
  4. What was his incorrect way?
  5. Who saved Siddhartha life?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

[SUJATA - DISGUSTED - BREAK - LUTE - WEAK - LUXURY - FAINT - TORTURE - GIVE UP - LOOSE]

  1. .............: feeling ill caused by something unpleasant.
  2. .............: to lose consciousness unexpectedly for a short time
  3. .............: from a good family origin
  4. .............: to stop doing or having (something)
  5. .............: great physical pain in order to persuade someone to do something
  6. .............: not firmly fixed in place
  7. .............: to interrupt or to stop (something) for a brief period
  8. .............: a musical instrument which has a body with a round back and a flat top, a long neck, and strings which are played with the fingers
  9. .............: something which is pleasant to have but is not necessary
  10. .............: not strong

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

[ENLIGHTENMENT - KAUNDINYA - RICE - DISCIPLES - SUJATA]

  1. Siddhartha accepted a little milk and ............. pudding from a village girl named Sujata.
  2. Siddhartha was believed to have granted ............. a wish.
  3. ............. and the other four companions left Siddhartha.
  4. After 49 days meditating, he attained ............. at the age of 35.
  5. Five of Ramaputra's ............. decided to go with Siddhartha.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

  1. He attained Enlightenment ............. the age ............. 35.
  2. They lived.............a time.............Gayashirsha Hill.
  3. Siddhartha decided ............. settle ............. the banks ............. the Niranjana.
  4. Accompanied ............. these five followers he made his way ............. Gaya.
  5. The Middle Way is a path ............. moderation away ............. the extremes ............. self-indulgence and self-mortification.

B. Rules

- BARE INFINITIVE after verbs of perception: see, hear, notice, observe; let, have, help, make

His five companions saw him eat.

Drills: Arrange the words in order

  1. Dharma / heard / Buddha / she / the / teach.
  2. can't / the / I / see / beg / monk / food.
  3. watched / pass / the / He / the / Buddha / foot / over / the / of / hill.
  4. crack / noticed / be / above / sounded / He / a.
  5. The / observed / the / up / woman / in / down / disciples / move / pregnant / and.

- SOME PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES for people and facts

They were disgusted to the pregnant woman.

The woman’s behavior was disgusting.

Drills: Arrange the words in order

  1. of / exciting / Anathapindika / story / the / was.
  2. to / starting / get / Buddhism / interested / she's / in.
  3. were / at / the / shocked / we / determination / Buddha’s.
  4. were / We / at / disgusted / Avichi / the.
  5. with / He / bored / was / the / getting / hell.

- PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

I'm pulling my strings too tightly

- PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Who was sitting in meditation.

They were playing lutes.

Drills: Choose the correct one

  1. Siddhartha ............. creatures in a bowl of water.

A. is discovering                      B. was discovering

C. was being discovered         D. is being discovered

  1. The Middle Way ............. by the Buddha.

A. was calling                               B. was being called

C. was be called                            D. was called

  1. Many Arahats ............. ultimate knowledge .

A. achieved                                   B. were achieved

C. was achieved                            D. didn’t achieve

  1. We ............. from worldly desires.

A. were be detached              B. were being detaching

C. were being detached         D. were detaching

  1. The monk ............. and stilling thought now.

A. is meditated                                 B. is meditating

C. meditate                                       D. meditating

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Put the words in order of a complete sentence

  1. became / thin and skeletal / His body.
  2. from the truth / His mind / he sought / answerved.
  3. He / a pipal tree / the river / chose / close to.
  4. the "Enlightened One / was / The Buddha."
  5. The area / The core / was / of Bihar / of the kingdom / the Ganges / south of.

B. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation

  1. Siddhartha / meditate / six years.
  2. He / remain / fixed / purpose.
  3. the end / six years / he / bring / enlightenment.
  4. Sujata / live / village / Uruvela.
  5. He / go / Niranjana river / bathe.

—UNIT 12:

THE SUN OF ENLIGHTENMENT SHINES

(Vầng hồng giác ngộ)

Siddhartha remembered meditating under the rose-apple tree when he was a child. "I shall meditate as I did before. Perhaps that is the way to become enlightened.From then on he began to eat daily.

Still seeking a way to understand the meaning of life, Siddhartha set out for Buddhagaya. Near a grove, he sat down under a huge Bodhi tree. Silently he vowed, "Even if my flesh and blood were to dry up, leaving only skin and bones, I will not leave this place until I find a way to end all sorrow.He sat there for forty nine days. He was determined to discover the source of all pain and suffering in the world. Mara, the evil one, tried to scare him into giving up his quest. For instance, he hoped to lure Siddhartha into having selfish thoughts by sending visions of his very beautiful daughters. But the Buddha's goodness protected him from such attacks.

During this period, Siddhartha was able to see things as they truly were. Now he had finally found the answer to suffering: "The cause of suffering is greed, anger and stupidity. If people get rid of these negative emotions, they will be happy."

During a full-moon night in May, Siddhartha went into deep meditation. As the morning star appeared in the eastern sky, he became an enlightened one, a Buddha. He was thirty five years old.

When the Buddha stood up at last, he gazed at the tree in gratitude, to thank it for having given him shelter. From then on, the tree was known as the Bodhi tree, the tree of Enlightenment.

NEW WORDS

Buddha-Gaya (n): Bồ Đề Đạo Tràng Ấn Độ nơi Phật giác ngộ, một trong bốn thánh tích thiêng liêng nhất của người Phật tử trên khắp thế giới vì chính nơi nầy Phật đã giác ngộ đạo quả Tối Thượng Chánh Đẳng Chánh Giác vào ngày trăng tròn tháng chạp, lúc mặt trời vừa ló dạng trên vùng trời phương Đông, lúc ấy Ngài vừa ba mươi lăm tuổi.

Mara (n): ác ma

scare /ske∂r, sker/ verb: làm sợ hãi

  • Violence scares me. [T]

(Bạo lực làm tôi sợ.)

quest /kwest/ noun [C] literary: sự tìm tòi

  • Nothing will stop him in their quest for truth.

(Không gì ngăn chặn ngài tìm tòi chân lý.)

lure /ljU∂r, lUr/ noun [U]: quyến rũ, sự cám dỗ

  • The lure of easy money led them to commit the crime.

(Sự cám dỗ của tiền bạc dễ kiếm làm họ sa vào tội ác.)

vision /'vIʒ.∂n/ noun [U]: ảo ảnh

  • He had the mental vision required for a saint.

(Ngài đạt viễn cảnh tinh thần của một vị thánh.)

goodness /'gUd.n∂s/ noun [U]: thiện căn

  • Bodhisattva's goodness is an example to us all.

(Lòng tốt của Bồ Tát là tấm gương cho tất cả chúng ta.)

attack /∂'tæk/ noun: tấn công

  • Maha made an attack on/against him.

(Ác ma đã quyến dụ ngài.)

truly /'tru:.lI/ adverb [not gradable]: một cách chân thật

  •  I can truly say I love Buddha.

(Thành thật mà nói tôi thích Đức Phật.)

grove /gr∂Uv, groUv/ noun [C]: lùm cây, khu rừng nhỏ

  • Orange groves grow around the village.

(Rừng cam mọc khắp ngôi làng.)

greed /gri:d/, greediness noun [U]: lòng tham

  • We all might be motivated by greed.

(Tất cả chúng ta đều bị lòng tham khuấy động.)

anger /'æη.g∂r, -g∂`/ noun [U]: sự sân hận

  • People often show anger at others’ treatment.

(Người ta thường sân hận với cách cư xử của người khác.)

stupidity /stju: 'pId.I.tI, stu: 'pId.∂.I/ noun [U]: sự ngu dại

  • Stupidity is the root of crime.

(Vô minh là cội nguồn của tội lỗi.)

get rid of (v): xua tan

  • Passionate get rid of much of greediness.

(Lòng từ bi xua tan tham lam.)

negative emotion /'neg.∂.tIv, -Iv I'm∂U.S∂n, -"moU-/ noun : lậu căn

  • Negative emotions are things like hatred, anger, sadness and happiness. [C]

(Lậu hoặc là hỉ, nộ, ái, ố.)

deep meditation / /di:p med.I'teI.ò∂n/ noun: sự nhập định

  • I left him deep in meditation. [U]

(Tôi để ông ta đi vào nhập định.)

gazed at /geIzd ∂t/ verb [I]: ngắm nhìn

  • Annette gazed admiringly at the Buddhist.

(Annette ngắm nhìn Đức Phật một cách ngưỡng mộ.)

gratitude /'græt.I.tju:d, 'græ.∂.tu:d/, gratefulness noun [U]: lòng biết ơn

  • How can I show my gratitude to parents?

(Làm sao tôi bày tỏ được lòng biết ơn đối với cha mẹ.)

shelter /'òel.t∂r, -∂`/ noun: nơi nương tựa, nhà cho người vô gia cư tạm nương thân

  • They have opened a shelter to provide temporary housing for homeless people

(Họ mở ra nhà trọ dành cho người không nhà cửa ở tạm thời.)

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. blood           B. moon              C. grove
  2. A. source         B. vow                C. thoughts
  3. A. full               B. truly                C. huge
  4. A. period          B. lure                 C. leave
  5. A. scared          B. protected       C. lightened

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. determined      B. evil               C. remembered
  2. A. meditating       B. discover      C. attacks
  3. A. finally              B. anger            C. stupidity
  4. A. negative           B. emotions     C. enlightened
  5. A. silently             B. gratitude      C. appeared

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. Siddhartha had a good memory.
  2. Siddhartha vowed to cut the flesh and bleed the skin and bones.
  3. Siddhartha founded the suffering.
  4. Siddhartha meditated deeply under the rose-apple tree for enlightment.
  5. Siddhartha became a Buddha at night.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. Why did Siddhartha began to eat again?
  2. Who prevented him to be enlightened?
  3. What are the cause of suffering?
  4. How old did Siddhartha become a Buddha?
  5. Why did a Buddha show gratitude to the Bodhi tree?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

21. lure

22. gratitude

23. Mara

24. greed

 

 

25. anger

 

26. Buddha Gaya

27. stupid

28. enlightenment

29. vow

30. sorrow

a. the highest spiritual state that can be

b. to promise to do something

c. a feeling of great sadness or regret

d. to cause a person to do something by being very attractive and difficult to refuse

e. a very strong wish to continually get more of something, esp. food or money

f. a strong feeling against someone

g. foolish or unwise

h. showing thanks to another person

i. the demon tempted Gautama Buddha.

j. most sacred place where he attained enlightenment.

 

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

enlightenment - seated - meditation - Mara -considered

31. ……………… is the "death" of the spiritual life.

32. The Buddha attained …………………………. under The Bodhi tree.

33. The Bodhi tree is ………………………… to be the among the oldest tree in the world.

34. The Buddha remained ……………………. in meditation for a week after his enlightenment.

35. After 49 days of ……………………….., Siddharta Guatama became the Buddha.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

for - by - to - beneath - at - from

36.  Siddharta sat down ……………… the Bodhi Tree.

37.  The Buddha practiced walking meditation nearby ……………. another week.

38.  Emperor Ashoka's Guru Upagupta led him …………… the various holy Bodhi tree.

39.  Buddhagaya is located …………….. a distance of 105 km ……………… Patna in the state of Bihar.

40.  He was disturbed neither ……………. hunger nor ………….. the scorching sun or torrential rains.

B. Rules

1. Making decision:

  • I shall meditate as I did before.
  • I will not leave this place until I find a way to end all sorrow.

2. Condition sentence:

  • If people get rid of these negative emotions, they will be happy.
  • Even if my flesh and blood were to dry up, leaving only skin and bones, I will not leave this place.

Rules:

  1. Khi hứa quyết tâm làm điều gì, ta dùng shall, will
  2. Câu điều kiện loại 1 (có thật) dùng will/won’t + verb hay dùng hình thức mệnh lệnh Verb/Don’t + verb ở mệnh đề chính (tức mệnh đề không có If.)

Exercises:

A. Match two parts with decision or promise:

41. He will meditate

 

42. He will break his fast, eat a little rice pudding

43. He will walk around the tree seven times

44. Siddharta will vow not to move

45. Siddharta will have

a. until he attained enlightenment.

b. offered to him by the girl Sujata.

c. before seating.

 

d. several battles with Mara.

e. until he attained the knowledge.

B. Match two parts to make conditional sentences

46. If Mara tried to seduce Siddharta,

47. If Mara makes the negative seem positive,

48. If this tree is Bodhi Tree,

49. If it is Buddha Gaya,

 

50. If there is a seat facing eastwards,

a. he will begin to meditate.

b. it will lure him with the vision of beautiful women.

c. it will a descendant of the original tree.

d. it will be regarded as a nuisance.

e. it will be home to the ancient temple of Buddha.

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Make another sentence with the same meaning

  1. Beautiful women are Mara’s daughters.

How………………………………………………...!

  1. Buddha Gaya is located 7 miles south of Gaya.

It was ……………………………………………….

  1. The temple of Mahabodhi has a beautiful stone railing around it.

There is ……………………………………………..

  1. He gave up his mortal self in Kushinara or Kashia in Uttar Pradesh.

It was ………………………………………………..

  1. A museum has gold, bronze and stone images of Buddha.

Images of Buddha in a museum ……………….. …………………………………………………………

B. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation

  1. Mara / make / mundane / allure.
  2. Buddha / deliver / his first sermon / Sarnath.
  3. A branch / The Bodhi tree / transplanted / Anuradhapura / Sri Lanka
  4. The Bodhi Tree / the Sacred Fig growing / the Mahabodhi Temple.
  5. Mara / all-powerful Lord / Evil.
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