Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

TIẾNG ANH CHO NGƯỜI MỚI HỌC PHẬT
Tác giảTrí Thành - Lê Văn Được
Nhà xuất bản Tổng Hợp Thành Phố Hồ Chí Minh 2018

 

CHAPTER 1

WHO WAS THE BUDDHA?

(Đức Phật là ai?)

UNIT 1:

THE COUNTRY

WHERE THE BUDDHA GREW UP

(Đất nước nơi đức Phật trưởng thành)

To find out who the Buddha was, you need to go back to the beginning. The Buddha lived in India more than two thousand five hundred years ago. His teachings are known as Dharma. Even as a boy, Siddhartha, the Buddha-to-be, liked to meditate. This is how he became enlightened. His teachings help people to live wisely and happily.

The hero of our story is Prince Siddhartha, the Buddha-to-be, who lived more than 2,500 years ago. His father was the Rajah of the Sakya clan, King Suddhodana, and his mother was Queen Maha Maya. They lived in India, in a city called Kapilavatthu, in the foothills of the Himalayas. They belonged to the Indian warrior caste.

NEW WORDS

Buddha /'bUd.∂/ noun [C]: Phật Thích-ca

  • Buddha was an enlightened being.

(Phật là Đấng Giác Ngộ.)

India /'In.di.∂n/ noun [C]: nước Ấn Độ

teachings /'ti:.tòIηz/ plural noun: giáo pháp

  • Buddha's teachings are endless.

(Giáo pháp của Phật vô biên.)

Buddhism /'bUd.I.z∂m/ noun [U]: Đạo Phật

Siddhartha (n): Thái Tử Tất-đạt-đa

meditate /'med.I.teIt/ verb [I]: thiền định

  • He decided to meditate on/upon the enlightenment.

(Ngài quyết tâm thiền định để giải thoát.)

enlightened /In'laI.t∂nd, -∂nd/ adjective approving: đã giác ngộ

  • The school has an enlightened policy of teaching boys to meditate.

(Trường học có chủ trương khai sáng dạy trẻ thiền định.)

wise /waIz/ adjective -r, -st: trí tuệ

  • She's a very wise woman, my aunt - it's worth listening to her views on Buddha’s teachings.

(Dì/Cô tôi là người khôn ngoan - Thật đáng nghe quan điểm của bà về lời dạy của Đức Phật.)

Rajah /'rɑ:.d'∂/ noun [C]: Vua hay Hoàng tử

Sakya (Sanskrit:Śākya, Pāli:Sākya) : dòng Thích-ca

Gautama (n): Cồ-Đàm

  • Siddhattha Gotama was a spiritual teacher from ancient India who founded Buddhism.

(Cồ-đàm Tất-đạt-đa là bậc thầy tinh thần của nước Ấn xưa đã sáng lập đạo Phật.)

Suddhodana (Sanskrit: Śuddhodana)(n): Vua Tịnh-phạn

  • King Suddhodana was the father of Siddhartha Gautama.

(Vua Tịnh Phạn là cha của Cồ-đàm Tất-đạt-đa.)

Mahan Maya (n): Hoàng hậu Ma-da

  • His mother is the Queen Mahamaya, or Mayadevi; daughter of the king Anjana and queen Yasodhara.

(Mẹ ngài là hoàng hậu Ma-da. con gái của vua Anjana và hoàng hậu Yasodhara.)

Kapilavatthu (Pāli) (n): Thành Ca-tì-la-vệ

  • Kapilavastu is the name of a region of ancient Shakya kingdom.

(Thành Ca-tì-la-vệ là tên của vùng thuộc triều đại dòng Thích-ca.)

Himalayas (n): dãy Hi-mã-lạp-sơn

warrior /'wɔri∂/ noun [C]: chiến binh

  • A Samurai/Kamikaze is a Japanese warrior.

(Dòng Samurai thuộc chiến binh của Nhật.)

caste /kɑ:st/ noun: giai cấp

  • Caste is still very important within Indian society. [U]

(Giai cấp vẫn còn rất quan trọng trong xã hội Ấn Độ.)

belonged to /bI'lɔη/ phrasal verb [T]: thuộc về

  • You shouldn't take what doesn't belong to you.

(Bạn đừng nên lấy những gì không thuộc về mình.)

clan /klæn/ noun [C + singular or plural verb]: dòng họ

  • Gautama is in one of the largest Sakya clans.

(Cồ-đàm là một trong những dòng họ Thích-ca lớn nhất.)

I. PRONUNCIATION

  1. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others
  1. A. out                  B. thousand            C. known
  2. A. clan                B. called                  C. Sakya
  3. A. warrior          B. caste                   C. Buddha
  4. A. hero               B. even                    C. teachings
  5. A. helped           B. lived                   C. enlightened
    1. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others
  6. A. enlightened     B. Buddha          C. India
  7. A. teachings         B. belonged       C. Buddhism
  8. A. meditate           B. wisely            C. beginning
  9. A. Himalayas       B. happily          C. hero
  10. A. foothills           B. warrior           C. meditation

II. READING

  1. Choose whether the statement is True or False
  1. [.............] Suddhodhana's mother was Sinahana.
  2. [.............] If Siddhartha saw four signs, an old man, a sick man, a corpse and a monk, he would not become a great sage.
  3. [.............] The Buddha preached the Dhamma to Suddhodana.
  4. [.............] King Suddhodana attained Arhantship.
  5. [.............] The Buddha preached to Suddhodana as he met him.
  1. Read and answer the following questions
  1. How long did the Buddha live in India?
  2. What do people call his teachings?
  3. What did Siddhartha like?
  4. How do his teachings help?
  5. What were his parents’ name?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

  1. Siddhartha
  2. Enlightened
  3. Rajah
  4. Sakya
  5. Buddha
  6. Teachings
  7. Buddhism
  8. Kapilavatthu
  9. Gautama
  10. Maha Maya
  11. Suddhodana
  12. Meditate
  1. (.............) the founder of Buddhism
  2. (.............) moral opinions of a religious leader
  3. (.............) a religion from India leading to a person escaping from human suffering
  4. (.............) a former of Buddha meaning “he who has attained his goal.”
  5. (.............) to think seriously about something for a long time
  6. (.............) knowing the truth about existence
  7. (.............) a king or prince in India.
  8. (.............) It is mentioned as a clan. They formed an independent kingdom at the foothills of the Himalayas. The capital was Kapilavastu.
  9. (.............) The most famous was Shakyamuni Buddha, a member of the ruling clan of Lumbini, who is also known as a "sage of the nation".
  10. (.............) the father of Siddhartha Gautama, later known as the Buddha.
  11. (.............) Shidartha’s mother.
  12. (.............) the name of a region of ancient Shakya kingdom considered a holy place for Buddhists.

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

[CASTE-MEDITATED-TEACHINGS-WISE-ENLIGHTENED]

  1. Buddha's ............. are wonderful.
  2. He ............. for 20 minutes every day.
  3. Buddha was an ............. being.
  4. She's a very ............. woman, my aunt - it's worth listening to her views on almost anything.
  5. The .......... system is part of daily life in Indian society.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition

  1. Most of India was unified ............. the emperor Asoka .............the 3rd century BC.
  2. They decided to meditate ............. the matter ............. an additional week or so.
  3. He's much more enlightened ............. her views ............. suffering.
  4. "How wise ............. you."
  5. Suddhodhana was married ............. princesses Mayadevi and Prajapati ............. Devadaha Kingdom.

B. Simple Present: Use the appropriate verb of present simple tense in the blank from:

Subject

Verb

Object / Complement

This

is

how he became enlightened

His teachings

help

people to live wisely and happily

The hero of our story

is

Prince Siddhartha

Drill: Fill in the blank with the correct simple present tense of these verbs

[IS - IS ACKNOWLEDGED - BELONGS - MEDITATE - IS]

  1. Kapilavastu in Nepal ............. by UNESCO
  2. Caste ............. still very important within Indian society.
  3. This book ............. to the Buddha’s messengers.
  4. If you ........, you give your attention to one thing.
  5. Meditation ............. the way of calming or relaxing your mind.

V. WRITING

  1. Arrangement: Put the words in order of a complete sentence
  1. experienced / India / in the 4th and 5th centuries AD / a golden age.
  2. a great universal monarch / Siddhartha / would become.
  3. what / shouldn't take / doesn't belong to you / You.
  4. is located / Devadaha Kingdom / of the river Anoma / on the bank
  5.  A wise man / from the experience / of others / learns
    1. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation
  6. He / born / the lowest caste.
  7. The school/ enlightened policy/ teaching boys/ meditate.
  8. Buddha/ proceeded/ preach/ the messenger.
  9. Siddhartha/ leave/ luxurious life/ search/ truth.
  10. Suddhodana/ tried/ keep/ Siddhartha/ outside world.

UNIT 2:

THE BIRTH OF PRINCE SIDDHARTHA

(Thái tử Tất-đạt-đa ra đời)

A long time ago in India, there lived a king named Suddhodana and a queen named Maha Maya. They were both good and kind people. One full moon night, the Queen dreamt of four devas. They carried her to a lake, to rest on a soft bed. A white elephant carrying a lotus flower went round her three times and disappeared into her. Wise men explained that the Queen was going to give birth to a prince.

When the time came for the baby to be born, Queen Maha Maya left the palace with the attendants to go back to her parent's home to give birth to the baby. On the way, they passed by a beautiful park called Lumbini Garden. Queen Maha Maya took a rest in the garden. While she was standing up and holding on to a tree she gave birth to the baby.

The birth took place on the fifth month of Vesakha, on a full moon day in 623 BC. We call it Vesak or Buddha Day. Queen Maha Maya then returned to the palace with her baby prince. King Suddhodana was very happy and celebrated the birth of the baby with his people all over the country.

 

NEW WORDS

Deva: chư thiên

rest /rest/ verb: an, xả

  • The Queen was tired, so she rest for a few minutes. [I]

(Vị nữ hoàng mệt, cho nên Bà nghỉ ngơi một lát.)

lotus /'l∂U.t∂s, 'loU.∂s/ noun [C]: hoa sen, thanh tịnh

  • lotus life is a life without any worries.

(Cuộc sống thanh tịnh là cuộc sống không lo âu.)

prince /prInts/ noun [C]: hoàng tử

  • Prince Shidartha is King Suddhodana's son.

(Hoàng tử Tất-đạt-đa là con vua Tịnh-phạn.)

attendant /∂'ten.d∂nt/ noun [C]: thị giả

  • The Prince was followed by many attendants.

(Hoàng tử có nhiều thị giả tháp tùng.)

Lumbini: vườn Lâm-tì-ni

Vesak: lễ mừng Đản Sinh đức Phật

return /rI't3:n, -'t3:rn/ verb [I]: trở về

  • Buddha returned to his home after many years of travelling.

(Phật trở về sau nhiều năm du pháp.)

celebrate /'sel.I.breIt/ verb: phụng nguyện, cúng tế

  • We always celebrate the dead’s souls on lunar month of July 15th.

(Chúng luôn cúng tế vong linh người chết vào ngày rằm tháng Bảy.)

explain /Ik'spleIn/ verb: minh giảng

  • If there's anything you don't understand, the monk'll be happy to explain. [I]

(Nếu bạn không hiểu thì vị tăng sẽ hoan hỉ giải thích.

appear /∂'pI∂r, -'pIr/ verb [I]: thị hiện

  • His name seems to appear in my mind.

(Tên của Ngài thường thị hiện trong tâm ta.)

I. PRONUNCIATION

  1. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others
  1. A. named                 B. passed                C. carried
  2. A. went                    B. dreamt                C. three
  3. A. lake                     B. rest                      C. bed
  4. A. full                      B. moon                  C. both
  5. A. four                     B. birth                    C. were
    1. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others
  6. A. baby                 B. elephant           C. returned
  7. A. flower              B. explained        C. carrying
  8. A. palace              B. attendants        C. beautiful
  9. A. disappeared    B. Lumbini           C. celebrated
  10. A. Buddha            B. country            C. ago

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. Siddhartha was good and kind at birth.
  2. A white elephant carried her round three times.
  3. Queen Maha Maya left the palace with the followers.
  4. She gave birth to the baby in bed.
  5. Vesak is Buddha Day.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. What was Suddhodana? What was Maha Maya?
  2. What did four devas do with the Queen?
  3. Who foretold the Queen was going to give birth to a prince.
  4. Where did Queen Maha Maya rest?
  5. When did the birth happened?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

  1. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

a. lotus - b. attendant - c. Deva - d. return - e. rest -         f. Lumbini - g. explain - h. Vesak - i. prince - j. celebrate

  1. [.............] a supernatural being in traditional Buddhism
  2. [.............] a period of time in which you relax
  3. [.............] a plant with large flat leaves which float on the surface of lakes
  4. [.............] a son or grandson of the king or queen
  5. [.............] someone whose job is to help religious leader.
  6. [.............] a park situated between Kapilavatthu and Devadaha, where the Buddha was born.
  7. [.............] an annual holiday observed by practicing Buddhists in many Asian countries
  8. [.............] to go back to a previous place
  9. [.............] to take part in a religious ceremony
  10. [.............] make easy to understand

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap [appeared - Lumbini - gave birth to - a rest - Siddhartha]

  1. Queen Mayadevi ............. Siddhartha Gautama
  2. This is a suffering way of life that the Buddha .............
  3. After a long time of meditation, my legs need ..............
  4. Prince ............. will be a future king.
  5. ............. is a Buddhist site in the Kapilavastu district of Nepal.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

  1. Every in-out breath, he returned ............. the same praying.
  2. The Siddhartha walked seven steps ............. birth.
  3. Lumbini is ............. the foothills ............. the Himalaya.
  4. The Buddha lived ...... roughly 563 and 483 BCE.
  5. Lumbini is one ............. four magnets ............. the life ............. the Buddha.
    1. Simple Past: URGE - CALL - DIE - LIVE - CELEBRATE
  6. Buddha's birthday 2552 ............. Viet Nam Vesak
  7. Asoka ............. Indians to build Buddhist monuments.
  8. After Siddhartha was born in seven days, his mother ..............
  9. The priests ............. Vesak.
  10. Kapilavastu was where the Buddha ............. till the age of 29.

V. WRITING

A. Arrangement: Put the words in order of a complete sentence

  1. never / disappear / The light of Dharma.
  2. was followed / The prince / one attendant.
  3. He would go to the doctor / the pain returned / if.
  4. after / The sheep died soon / the birth of her lambs.
  5. This problem / overnight / won't just disappear.

B. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation

  1. Prince Juan Carlos/ Spain / become / king / 1975.
  2. Lumbini / have / number / pagodas now.
  3. Devas / be / present / birth / prince.
  4. teacher / explained / rules / children.
  5.  Buddha / have / first bath / Puskarini Pond.

UNIT 3:

THE NAMING CEREMONY

(Buổi lễ đặt tên)

Five days after the birth of the prince, many wise men were invited to the palace for the Naming Ceremony. They looked at the marks on the child's body. Seven wise men raised two fingers and said that the prince would either become a Great King or a Buddha. The youngest, Kondanna, raised only one finger and said that the prince would become a Buddha. The prince was then given the name "Siddhartha" by the wise men, which meant "wish-fulfilled".

Seven days after the birth of her child, Queen Maha Maya passed away. Pajapati Gotami, her younger sister, who was also married to King Suddhodana, brought up the prince as her own child.

NEW WORDS

Naming Ceremony /neImIη /'ser∂m∂ni/ formal noun [C]: Lễ đặt tên

mark /mɑ:k/ noun [C]: dấu vết

  • He had a mark on his toe where he was hit by a rock.

(Ngài bị một vết trên ngón chân do tảng đá đập vào)

palace /'pæl.Is/ noun [C]: lâu đài

  • Rich people were gathered in front of the palace.

(Người giàu được tập trung trước lâu đài)

raise /reIz/ verb [T]: nâng, giơ lên

  • He raised his arm to the sky.

(Ngài giơ tay chỉ lên trời)

finger /'fIη.g∂r, -g∂`/ noun [C]: ngón tay

  • Though the little finger is small, it is near the altar when we pray for Buddhist.

(Dù ngón tay út nhỏ, nhưng nó gần bàn thờ khi chúng ta cầu nguyện phật)

Kondanna (n): Kiều-trần-như

wish-fulfilled /wIò fUl'fIld/ (a): thành tựu như ý

  • Men, in these dramas of female wish-fulfillment, are reduced to the status of playthings.

(Đàn ông, theo pháp thành tựu của giới nữ, nên giảm tình trạng vui chơi)

pass away phrasal verb [I]: qua đời

  • A-nan was terribly sorrow because Buddha foretold he would passed away the next three months.

(A-nan đau buồn thảm thiếtĐức Phật báo trước là mình sẽ nhập Niết Bàn 3 tháng tới.)

Pajapati Gotami (n): Ba-xà Ba-đề

bring up phrasal verb [M] past brought: nuôi dưỡng

  • Shidartha was brought up by Pajapati Gotami

(Tất-đạt-đa được bà Di-đề-hi nuôi dưỡng)

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

1. A. looked              B. passed            C. raised

2. A. raised               B. meant              C. men

3. A. wish                  B. child               C. prince

4. A. would               B. Buddha           C. younger

5. A. said                   B. name               C. great

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

6.    A. Naming          B. invited                C. seven

7.    A. fulfilled         B. either                  C. become

8.    A. Kondanna     B. Siddhartha         C. imaginary

9.    A. desires           B. Buddha               C. youngest

10. A. palace            B. Gotami               C. fulfilled

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

11.  Pajapati Gotami brought up the prince from Suddhodana.

12.  They looked at the birthmarks on Siddhartha.

13.  According to seven wise men, Siddhartha would be a Great King or a Buddha.

14.  Kondanna confirmed that the prince would become a Buddha.

15.  Seven days after the birth, Queen Maha Maya went away.

B. Read and answer the following questions

16.  What were many wise men invited for?

17.  How many careers did seven wise men say?

18.  Who was married to King Suddhodana?

19.  What did “Siddhartha" mean?

20.  What was Pajapati Gotami?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of words below

21. Naming Ceremony

 

22. mark

23. palace

24. Buddha

 

25. Kondanna

26. wish-fulfilled

 

27. pass away

 

28. Pajapati Gotami

 

29. Siddhartha

30. raise finger

a. a symbol for giving information

b. the Buddha

c. makes any effort to help

d. the son of a very wealthy Brahmin family

e. achieving real desires

f. a large house of a king or a person of high rank

g. the title given to Siddhartha Gautama

h. the event at which an infant is given a name

i. to die

j. the Buddha's foster mother as well as his maternal aunt.

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap (Kondanna - Guatama - Buddha - Gotami - raises a finger)

31.  He just watches TV all evening and never ............. when it comes to cooking.

32.  ............. left a life of luxury at age 30.

33.  The ............. taught disciples about the Four Noble Truths.

34.  King Suddodhana married both sisters Maya and younger sister ..............

35.  ............. was born before the Buddha.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

36.  Guatama devoted himself........years........ self-denial.

37.  He came to be called ............. his family name Kondanna.

38.  Queen Maha Maya died ............. the 7th day ............. the birth ............. Prince Siddattha.

39.  Suddhodana was the ruler ............. the Sakya people.

40.  Siddhartha submitted himself ............. practices.

B. Passive Voice

Examples:

  • Pajapati Gotami, her younger sister, who was also married to King Suddhodana
  • Many wise men were invited to the palace for the Naming Ceremony.
  • The prince was then given the name "Siddhartha" by the wise men.

Drills: Change into the Passive Voice

41.  They looked at the marks on the child's body.

42.  Pajapati Gotami brought up the prince.

43.  The Buddha taught the goal of achieving the enlightened state of Nirvana.

44.  Guatama reached enlightenment.

45.  Kondanna said that the prince would become a Buddha.

V. WRITING

  1. Transformation: Put the words in order of a complete sentence

46.  a "the awakened" / Buddha / is

47.  living the extravagant life / Siddhartha grew up / of a young prince.

48.  The Anattalakhana Sutta / after five days / was preached

49.  became / The Anattalakhana / Sutta arahant

50.  the Buddha / In the assembly of monks / sat behind the two chief disciples.

  1. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation

51.  Siddhartha / born / sixth century B.C.

52.  Siddhartha Gautama / be / son / Nepalese rajah.

53.  What / those marks / the middle / the road mean?

54.  Gotami became / queen / foster mother / prince.

55.  The Queen has agreed / open Buckingham Palace / the public.

UNIT 4:

THE CHILDHOOD OF THE PRINCE

(Thời niên thiếu của vị hoàng tử)

The prince grew up to be kind and generous. He was liked by all. When still in his early years, Prince Siddhartha witnessed a bird carrying a worm that had been turned up by the farmer's plough. This sight caused him to think about the unhappy situation of creatures which were killed by other creatures for food.

Seated under a rose-apple tree the young prince experienced the joy of meditation. At another time, the compassionate prince saved the life of a swan which had been wounded by Devadatta's arrow. As a prince, young Siddhartha received an education in the arts and sciences and mastered the art of war and the royal sports of his time.

NEW WORDS

witness /'wIt.n∂s/ verb [T]: chứng kiến

  • He arrived home to witness his father’ death

(Ngài về nhà chứng kiến cha đã qua đời.)

plough /plaU/ noun [C]: lưỡi cày

  • After ploughs were many creatures killed for food.
  •  

sight /saIt/ noun [U]: sự chứng kiến

  • Sights of four scenes happened around the palace.
  •  

situation /sIt.ju'eI.ò∂n/ noun [C]: hoàn cảnh, tình huống

  • The situation makes her pray.
  •  

seat /si:t/ verb [T]: an toạ

  • All are seating to listen to the teachings.
  •  

experience /Ik'spI∂.ri.∂nts, -'spIr.i-/ verb [T]: trải qua

  • He experienced great difficulty in finding the enlighenment.
  •  

meditation /med.I'teI.ò∂n/ noun: sự tham thiền

  • I left him deep in meditation. [U]
  •  

creature /'kri:tò∂r, -tò∂`/ noun [C]: chúng sinh

  • All living creatures have certain rights to survive.
  •  

joy /dʒɔI/ noun [U]: niềm an lạc

  • We were filled with joy when listening to his teachings.
  •  

compassionate /k∂m'pæò.∂n.∂t/ adjective approving : từ bi

  • The poor were happy to our generous and compassionate deed.
  •  

receive /rI'si:v/ verb [T]: nhận lấy

  • Did you receive his offerings?
  •  

turned up /t∂:n, t∂:rn/ phrasal verb [I]: thị hiện, xuất hiện

  • Do you think many people will turn up for the meditation? [I]
  •  

worm /w∂:m, w∂:rm/ noun [C]: con sâu, loài động vật thấp sinh

  • As worms were moving out of soil they were caught by birds.
  •  

royal /'rɔI.∂l/ adjective [not gradable]: thuộc hoàng gia

  • Siddhartha belongs to the royal family.
  •  

education /ed.jU'keI.ò∂n/ noun [U]: nền giáo dục, giáo pháp ngữ

  • As a child he received most of his education in the palace.
  •  

swan /swɔn/ noun [C]: con thiên nga

  • The swan was shot by Devadatta.
  •  

wound /wu:nd/ verb [T]: bị thương

  • During the traveling for teaching, he was wounded in the leg.
  •  

arrow /'ær.∂, 'er.oU/ noun [C]: mũi tên

  • Robin Hood asked to be buried where his arrow landed.
  •  

arts /ɑ:ts, ɑ:rts/ plural noun: nghệ thuật

  • He was quite good at arts and fighting.
  •  

science /saI∂nts/ noun: khoa học

  • Space travel is one of the wonders of modern science [U]
  •  

master /'mɑ:st∂r, 'mæs.t∂`/ verb [T]: quán triệt, ngộ

  • If you master a situation, you learn how to deal with it.
  •  

war /wɔ:/ noun: chiến tranh

  • There were many wars in ancient India.
  •  

sport /spɔ:t/ noun: thể thao

  • He only plays sports in the palace.
  •  

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. young               B. wounded            C. plough
  2. A. caused             B. rose                     C. sports
  3. A. early                 B. years                   C. bird
  4. A. creatures         B. sight                    C. sciences
  5. A. seated              B. killed                  C. turned

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. farmer            B. generous            C. unhappy
  2. A. royal              B. another               C. arrow
  3. A. mastered       B. about                  C. creatures
  4. A. experienced B. meditation         C. situation
  5. A. received        B. compassionate  C. education

II. READING

  1. Choose whether the statement is True or False
  2. The prince was born to be kind and generous.
  3. Prince Siddhartha witnessed animals were killed for food.
  4. He witnessed the happiness of creatures with food.
  5. The pitiful prince saved the life of a compassionate swan.
  6. Young Siddhartha was taught the arts and sciences.
    1. Read and answer the following questions
  7. Who liked him?
  8. Why had a worm been turned up?
  9. Where did the young prince enjoy meditation?
  10. Who had wounded the swan?
  11. What was Young Siddhartha good at?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

21. meditation

22. creatures

 

23. joy

24. compassionate

25. receive

 

 

26. turned up

27. worm

 

 

28. royal

 

29. education

30. swan

a. belonging to a king or queen

b. the teaching of male and female students

c. any large or small living thing

d. great happiness

e. having a strong feeling for the suffering or bad luck of others and having a desire to help them

f. to get

g. a mental practice with attempts to get a deeper state of relaxation or awareness

h. a large white bird with a long neck that lives on rivers and lakes

i. to cause to appear

j. a small animal with a long narrow soft body without arms, legs or bones

 

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap [COMPASSIONATE - JOY - MEDITATION - SITUATIONS - CREATURES]

31.  All living ............. have the rights to exist?

32.  We were filled with ............. when we understand Dharmma

33.  ............. is turning attention to a single point of reference.

34.  The public appeal for being generous and ..............

35.  Siddhartha was very good in social ..............

 

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

36.  I'm pitiful ............. worms.

37.  The drunk elephant knelt ............. welcome sight ............. the Buddha.

38.  His action caused him ............. die ............. Hell.

39.  We experienced great difficulty ............. suffering.

40.  Meditation is recognized ............. a component ............. Buddhism

B. Position of ADJECTIVES

Examples:

1. After ‘to be’ or ‘linking verbs’

The prince grew up to be kind and generous.

2. Before noun(s)

  1. the unhappy situation
  2. his early years
  3. the young prince
  4. at another time
  5. the compassionate prince
  6. young Siddhartha
  7. the royal sports

Drills: Put the adjective at the right places of sentences

41.  Meditation develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. (Buddhist)

42.  Core meditation is preserved in teachings. (Buddhist , ancient)

43.  Meditation has been practiced for over years. (5,000)

44.  Meditation is practiced outside traditions. (religious)

45.  Meditation emphasizes more and mind. (peaceful relaxed)

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Put the words in order of a complete sentence

46.  was / Devadatta / a Buddhist monk.

47.  was / later undone / This schism.

48.  All Devadatta’s followers / to the Buddha / came back.

49.  wanted to become / himself / a great religious leader / Devadatta.

50.  corrupted / developing / Devadatta / became some supernatural powers / after

  1. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation
  1. Devadatta / be / cousin / Gautama Buddha.
  2. He / recorded / having created / schism / sangha.
  3. Devadatta / wanted / come back / Buddha.
  4. original motivation/ Devadatta/ be/ lead/ holy life.
  5. Devadatta / jealous / the Buddha's greatness / wisdom.

UNIT 5:

THE PRINCE MARRIES

(Vị thái tử lập gia đình)

At the age of sixteen, Prince Siddhartha married a beautiful young princess called Yasodhara. She loved and cared for him, and together they lived a life of royal luxury for nearly thirteen years.

He was protected from all the problems of life outside the palace gates. He had all the comforts that a prince of his day could desire. He lived in a world where there was nothing but happiness and laughter. One day, however, he wished to discover the world outside his palace.

When the king learnt about this, he gave an order to the people of the city, "Have the houses along the road to the city cleaned and decorated. Make the roads sweet with incense and have the people dressed in colourful clothing. Make certain that all the beggars, the old and the sick stay indoors until the prince has left."

NEW WORDS

Yasodhara (n): Da-du-đà-la

care for /ke∂r, ker /fɔ:/ phrasal verb [T]: thích, ưa quan tâm đến

  • He doesn't much care for wealth and joy.

(Ngài không bận tâm đến sự giàu cóhoan lạc cho lắm.)

luxury /'lLk.ò∂r.I, -ò∂`-/ noun: xa xỉ, sang trọng

  • No luxury attracted him

(Không xa hoa nào quyến rũ được ngài.)

protect /pr∂'tekt/ verb [T]: bảo vệ

  • This teaching will protect you from suffering

problem /'prɔb.l∂m, 'prɑ:.bl∂m/ noun [C](n): khó khăn, phiền não

  • Our main problem is lack of happiness.

(Khó khăn chủ yếu của tôi là thiếu hạnh phúc.)

gate /geIt/ noun [C]: cổng vào, môn

  • The children were swinging on the metal gate.

(Lũ trẻ đang đánh đu trên cổng sắt.)

comfort /'kLm.f∂t, -f∂`t/ noun: tiện nghi

  • He didn’t like his creature comforts

(Ngài không thích tiện nghi của thế gian.)

desire /dI'zaI∂r, -'zar/ verb: ước ao, vọng

  • desire nothing other than to be left in peace. [T]

(Tôi không ước ao gì hơn là được để yên.)

laughter /'lɑ:f.t∂r, 'læf.t∂`/ noun [U]: tiếng cười

  • Laughter is the best medicine

(Nụ cười là thang thuốc tốt nhất.)

wish /wIò/ verb [+ (that) clause]: ước muốn, chúc

  • We wish that all people would love each other.

(Chúng tôi mong mọi người yêu thương nhau.)

discover /dI'skLv.∂r, -∂`/ verb: khám phá

  • Gravity was discovered by Newton when an apple fell on his head. [T]

(Trọng lực được Newton khám phá khi quả táo rớt trúng đầu.)

order /'ɔ:.d∂r, 'ɔ:r.d∂`/ noun [C]: lệnh, ra lệnh

  • Clean up your mind immediately - and that's an order!

(Hãy tẩy sạch tâm của anh ngay - đó là lệnh.)

clean /kli:n/ verb: lau chùi, quét sạch

  • We’re going to clean my mind every morning. [T]

(Mỗi sáng ta nên tẩy sạch tâm.)

decorate /'dek.∂.reIt/ verb [T]: trang trí

  • They decorated the wedding car with flowers.

(Họ trang trí xe hoa.)

sweet /swi:t/ adjective -er, -est: ngọt, dịu, êm đềm

  • What a sweet baby!

(Đứa trẻ dễ thương quá!)

incense /'In.sents/ noun [U]: hương, trầm

  • Incense produces a sweet smell, esp. as part of a religious ceremony.

(Hương toả mùi ngọt ngào, đặc biệt là một phần của lễ nghi tôn giáo.)

dress /dres/ verb [T]: thay đồ, ăn mặc

  • She's only four but she can already dress herself.

(Cô bé chỉ lên bốn mà biết tự thay đồ rồi.)

colourful UK and ANZ, US and ANZ colorful /'kLl.∂.f∂l, '-∂`-/ adjective: đủ màu, sắc

  • I like colourful paintings, like Van Gogh's 'Sunflowers'.

(Tôi thích các hoạ phẩm đủ màu, như “Hoa hướng dương” của Van Gogh’s.)

make certain /meIk 's∂:.t∂n, 's∂:r.∂n-/: chắc chắn, bảo đảm

  • You should make certain (that) no one else has already done that.

(Bạn nên bảo đảm là không ai khác làm điều đó rồi.)

beggar /'beg.∂r, -∂`/ noun [C]: khất sĩ

  • He dropped a king to be a beggar.

(Ngài bỏ ngôi vua để làm một khất sĩ.)

sick /sIk/ plural noun: người bệnh

  • It's better for the sick to be cared for at home rather than in hospital.

(Người bệnh được chăm sóc tại nhà tốt hơn ở bệnh viện.)

stay /steI/ verb [I]: lưu lại, ở lại

  • Stay until the Sutra has stopped.

(Hãy lưu lại đến khi nghe hết kinh.)

indoor /In'dɔ:r, -'dɔ:r/ adjective [before noun; not gradable]: trong nhà

  • They spray before indoor statues.

(Họ cầu nguyện trước các tượng để trong nhà.)

leave /li:v/ verb [T] past left: ra đi, buông bỏ

  • He's left that kind of rich and comfortable life behind.

(Ngài để lại cuộc sống giàu có, tiện nghi phía sau.)

  1. PRONUNCIATION
  1. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others
    1. A. cleaned      B. called        C. dressed
    2. A. houses        B. roads         C. beggars
    3. A. world          B. loved        C. order
    4. A. make           B. day            C. palace
    5. A. lived           B. life            C. prince
  2. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others
    1. A. happiness          B. laughter              C. outside
    2. A. desire                 B. comforts             C. royal
    3. A. discover             B. protected            C. luxury
    4. A. together              B. beautiful            C. colourful
    5. A. decorated        B. thirteen               C. problems

 

  1. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. Prince Siddhartha loved and cared for Yasodhara.
  2. All the problems of life outside the palace gates protected Prince Siddhartha.
  3. He lived happily and joyfully.
  4. The king let Prince Siddhartha know the city.
  5. The people did not have to wear clothing.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. When did Prince Siddhartha marry Yasodhara.
  2. How long did they live together?
  3. What did Prince Siddhartha have in the Palace?
  4. What did Prince Siddhartha want to know?
  5. How did the king order people to do with houses along the roads?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

21.Yasodhara

22. care for

23. luxury

 

24. desire

25. discover

 

26. clean

27. incense

28. sick

29. stay

30. leave

a. expensive and beautiful things

b. not dirty

c. the daughter of King Suppabuddha and Pamitā.

d. like

e. a substance burnt with sweet smell in a religious ceremony

f. to go away

g. not well or healthy

h. want something strongly

i. to find for the first time

j. to not move away

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

[COMFORT - PROBLEM - YASODHARA - CARED FOR - LUXURY]

31.  ............. and the Prince married when they were 16 years of age.

32.  Yasodhara ............. her son named Rāhula.

33.  Yasodhara had lived in the palace of ............. comfort and happiness.

34.  Yasodhara’s only ............. was her infant son.

35.  When the Prince was gone, Yasodharā had a ............. with grief.

IV. GRAMMAR

  1. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition
    1. The Price left the palace ............. the night.
    2. He needed an assistant who is willing ............. stay ............. six months.
    3. Yasodhara was the same age ............. Prince Siddhattha.
    4. Yasodhara was wedded ............. her cousin ............. his 19th year.
    5. ............. the age ............. 29 Yasodhara gave birth ………….. their only child.
  2. Causative Forms

Verbs

Active

Passive

HAVE

Have + someone + bare verb

Have + something + p.p.verb

GET

Get + someone + to verb

Get + something + p.p. verb

Examples:

  • Have the houses along the road to the city cleaned and decorated.
  • Get the roads been sweet with incense.
  • Have the people dressed in colourful clothing.
  • Get the law to stay all the beggars, the old and the sick indoors

Drills: Make another sentence with the same meaning

  1. Siddartha was leading a Holy Life.

Siddartha had .............

  1. Yasodhara wore a plain yellow robe.

Yasodhara got ..............

  1. Yasodhara ate only one meal a day when Siddartha left the Palace.

Yasodhara had herseft .............

  1. Princess Yasodharā followed the news of the Buddha closely.

Princess Yasodharā got her assistant .............

  1. Yasodharā entered the Order of Nuns.

Yasodharā had .............

V. WRITING

  1. Transformation: Put the words in order of a complete sentence
  1. before / Yasodhara / two years / the Lord Buddha's / died.
  2. the niece / Yasodhara / of King Suddhodana / was.
  3. means / Yasodhara / The name / Bearer of glory.
  4. is formally identified / the young brahmin Sumedha / as a future Buddha.
  5. meets / for the first time / Yashodharā / Siddhārtha Gautama / in a previous life.
  1. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation
  1. Yasodhara / die / age / 78.
  2. Rāhula / become / novice Monk.
  3. the same day / his birth, / Prince / leave / palace.
  4. Yasodhara / emulated / Siddartha / removing / jewellery.
  5. Prince / struggled / Enlightenment / six years.
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