Chapter 4

01/06/20193:25 CH(Xem: 147)
Chapter 4

TIẾNG ANH CHO NGƯỜI MỚI HỌC PHẬT
Tác giảTrí Thành - Lê Văn Được
Nhà xuất bản Tổng Hợp Thành Phố Hồ Chí Minh 2018

 

CHAPTER 4

WHAT THE BUDDHA TAUGHT?

(Đức Phật truyền giáo pháp gì?)

UNIT 13:

THE BUDDHA DECIDES TO TEACH

(Đức Phật quyết định truyền giáo pháp)

After his enlightenment, the Buddha was in two minds about teaching the Dharma because it's so profound. But he soon realised that there were lots of people like him who also wanted to learn the Truth of existence, so he decided to teach after all. His first - and most important teaching - was on the Four Noble Truths.

After a long rest, the Buddha began to plan what to do in the future. He thought: "Although the Dharma is deep and will be difficult for most people to understand, there are some who only have a little craving. Such people may be able to accept it.

So I should not keep this truth a secret. I should make it known everywhere, so that all people can benefit from it."

NEW WORDS

teach /ti:tò/ verb past taught: hoằng pháp

  • She works in a pagoda and he teaches. [I]

(Cô làm việc trong chùa còn vị tăng hoàng pháp.)

mind /maInd/ noun [C]: tâm ý

  • I think you’ll have a very Dharma mind.

(Tôi nghĩ anh sẽ đạt ngay trí tụê giáo pháp.)

Dharma (n): Pháp

profound /pr∂'faUnd/ adjective: uyên thâm, sâu sắc

  • His mother's death when he was aged six had a very profound effect on him.
  •  

realize UK and ANZ usually -ise /"rI∂.laIz, "ri:.∂-/ verb: nhận thức

  • They didn't realize the danger of greediness.

(Họ không nhận ra mối nguy hiểm của lòng tham)

the Truth /tru:q/ noun [U]: Thực tướng

  • Truth is stranger than fiction

(Sự thật lạ lùng hơn giả tưởng)

the Four Noble Truths (n): Tứ Diệu Đế

accept /∂k'sept/ verb: ngộ, nhập

  • Do you accept Buddha’s teachings? [T]

(Anh có ngộ được giáo pháp của Phật không?)

craving /'kreI.vIη/ noun [C]: sự khao khát

  • Sometimes she has a craving for Nirvana.

(Đôi khi cô khao khát được nhập Niết Bàn.)

secret /'si:.kr∂t/ noun [C]: bí ẩn, bí mật

  • Don't tell anyone about this - it's a secret.

(Đừng cho ai biết điều này - bí mật.)

benefit /'ben.I.fIt/ verb, noun -t- or UK also -tt-: thừa hưởng

  • The findings of Dharma brought many benefits to the public. [C]

(Những khám phá về Pháp đem nhiều lợi ích cho quần chúng)

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. realized            B. decided           C. wanted
  2. A. most                 B. thought           C. known
  3. A. keep                 B. deer                C. deep
  4. A. lots                   B. teachings       C. minds
  5. A. craving             B. all                   C. make

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. because         B. realized       C. profound
  2. A. Dharma         B. accept          C. Buddha
  3. A. everywhere   B. benefit         C. enlightenment
  4. A. about             B. existence     C. understand
  5. A. secret             B. practiced     C. important

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. When the Buddha was enlighted, he taught the Dharma right away.
  2. He taught the Truth of existence first.
  3. He practiced the Four Noble Truths right away.
  4. Few people learned the Dharma.
  5. He disclosed his Dharma.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. Why did he hesitated with his Dharma?
  2. Why did he decide to teach the Truth of existence after all?
  3. What was his first teaching?
  4. How many people understand the Dharma?
  5. What is his ambition with the Dharma?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

21. the Four Noble Truths

22. Dharma

23. existence

 

 

 

 

24. Truth

25. craving

a. ideal truth as set forth in the teaching of Buddha

b. actuality or actual existence.

c. the doctrines of Buddha: all life is suffering, the cause of suffering is ignorant desire, this desire can be destroyed, the means to this is the Eightfold Path.

d. a strong or uncontrollable desire

e. life in difficult conditions

 

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

 forms - practical - overcome - suffering - constitutes

26.  The third noble truth expresses the idea that ………… can be ended by attaining dispassion.

27.  Nirodha extinguishes all ………… of clinging and attachment.

28.  Suffering can be ……….. through human activity, simply by removing the cause of suffering.

29.  The Four Noble Truths ……….. the gist of Buddhism.

30.  Great emphasis is put on the ……… aspect.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition: of - in - of - to - of

31.  The First Noble Truth is the existence …… impermanence "dukkha"

32.  Don’t attach …….. what you're experiencing.

33.  You can relax ………. the knowledge that nothing bad lasts forever.

34.  You are more aware ……… how you're reacting to your experiences at all times.

35.  The second noble truth is the arising of suffering because ……. craving "samudaya"

 B. Rules

- Relative clauses: Mệnh đề quan hệ theo sau danh từ hay đại từ mà nó bổ nghĩa. Nếu chỉ người dùng who, whom; nếu chỉ vật dùng which, that

Ví dụ: There were lots of people like him who also wanted to learn the Truth of existence.

- Noun clauses: mệnh đề danh từ có chức năng giống như một danh từ; có thể làm chủ ngữ của động từ, tân ngữ của giới từ, trả lời cho câu hỏi “Ai?”, “Cái gì?”.

Ví dụ: The Buddha began to plan what to do in the future.

- Drill: Fill in the gaps with correct connective and give its name

36.  We categorize …….. we can know and describe, in terms of me/not me, and being/not being.

37.  Suffering is caused by endlessly wanting ……. you can't have.

38.  You can end eternal suffering by ending the craving ……… leads to the continuation of suffering.

39.  You want something and you don't get it, from …….. you'd get sad or frustrated.

40.  You can realize ……... nothing good lasts forever.

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Make another sentence with the same meaning

41.  Nothing lasts forever.

There is nothing ……………………………………

42.  You should get bored with anything attached.

You should get bored with something……………… …………………………………………………………

43.  If you can stop this endless wanting, you won't suffer anymore.

You can stop this endless wanting………………….. ,……………………………..……………………………

44.  We are in an endless cycle of wanting.

We, who live on the Earth, are……………………… ………………………………..…………………………

45.  Living by the ideals of the Noble Eightfold Path, you end eternal craving.

The Buddha said that………………………………

…………………………………………………

B. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation

46.  People / not / know / feel pained / sad ever / life.

47.  third noble truth/ the cessation/ suffering "nirodha"

48.  Path / grounded / program / meditation.

49.  Buddha / like / doctor, focusing / the disease he wanted / cure.

50.  four noble truths / most basic expression / the Buddha's teaching.

 

UNIT 14:

TEACHING THE DHARMA

TO THE FIVE FRIENDS

(Truyền giáo pháp cho năm anh em)

 

The Buddha decided to first teach the Dharma to his five companions who had taken care of him during his six years of struggle for Enlightenment.

The Buddha walked slowly to the Deer Park in Sarnath near Varanasi where they were staying. His five friends were Kondanna, Bhaddiya, Vappa, Mahanama and Assaji.

When they saw the Buddha, they refused to welcome him, thinking that he was enjoying a sensuous life. However, as the Buddha walked closer to them, they were attracted by his calm look.

They finally agreed to sit down and listen to him. Then for the first time, the Buddha taught the Dharma or the Four Noble Truths to his five friends, known as the turning of the "Wheel of the Dharma".

NEW WORDS

to take care of /ke∂r, ker/ : quan tâm

  • To take care of someone is to be responsible for them or it.

(Quan tâm đến ai là có trách nhiệm với người đó.)

struggle /"strLg.l=/ verb [I]: đấu tranh

  • He struggled along the rough road holding his reality.

(Ngài khó khăn đấu tranh tìm chân lý)

the Deer Park (n): Vườn Nai

Kondanna (n): Kiều-trần-như

Bhaddiya (n): Bạt-đề

Vappa (n): Thập-lực

Mahanama (n): Maha Nam

Assaji (n): Át-bệ

Varanasi (skt): Bà-la-nại Tả (an ancient kingdom and city, noted as a headquarters of Sivaism around 640 A.D.; another name for Benares-Một vương quốc cổ, tổng hành dinh của phái Sivaism vào khoảng năm 640 sau Tây Lịch; tên khác của thành Ba-la-nại)

sensuous /'sent.sjU∂s/ adjective: dục lạc

  • Sensuous feeling never please the mind or the intelligence

(Ý tưởng dục lạc không bao giờ đáp ứng với tâm hay trí tuệ.)

turning /'t∂:niη, 't∂:rniη/ (n): sự xoay chuyển, chỗ rẽ

  • The turning point in her career came when she practiced The Four Noble Truth.

(Bước ngoặt trong đời cô đến khi cô thực hành Tứ Thánh Đế)

Wheel of the Dharma (n): Bánh Xe Pháp

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. walked             B. agreed            C. refused
  2. A. friends             B. years               C. Truths
  3. A. saw                   B. taught             C. four
  4. A. who                  B. look                C. for
  5. A. five                   B. life                  C. determine

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. Buddha          B. decided      C. Dharma
  2. A. during            B. struggle      C. Enlightenment
  3. A. Varanasi        B. Sarnath       C. however
  4. A. sensuous       B. enjoying     C. attracted
  5. A. Bhaddiya       B. Vappa         C. disclose

II. READING

 A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. His five friends were looking after of him
  2. They were living in Varanasi
  3. They stopped talking to him.
  4. They were his audience.
  5. They did come near to the Buddha.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. How long had they suffered from hardship?
  2. How did the Buddha find his friends?
  3. Did they greet him? Why?
  4. How was his sight?
  5. What was his first lesson?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

21. Shakyamuni

 

22. Wheel of Dharma

23. Kondanna

 

24. Bhaddiya

25. Varanasi

 

a. a symbol that has represented dharma,

b. the son of Kāligodhā, the senior Sākyan lady of her time

c. The capitol of Kashi, one of the states of ancient India.

d. often preached in Varanasi.

e. a Buddhist bhikkhu in the sangha of Gautama Buddha

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

 arahant - enlightened - acknowledged - BCE - dharma

26.  Kondanna lived during the 6th century ……..

27.  Kondanna was the first to become a/ an …………..

28.  Prince Siddhartha would become a/ an ………. Buddha

29.  Upon enlightenment, Siddartha gave his first ………. talk to Kaundinya's group.

30.  The Buddha ………. his nephew as the foremost preacher of the dharma.

IV. GRAMMAR

Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

to - around - among - as - to- of - in

31.  Kaundinya vowed …… become his disciple.

32.  Kaundinya later travelled …. India spreading the dharma.

33.  ………. his notable converts was his nephew Punna.

34.  Kaundinya first came to prominence ……… a youth due ……… his mastery …….. the vedas

35.  Kaundinya and four colleagues followed Siddhartha …… six years ……… ascetic practice

Rules

1. Past Perfect Tense: Thì này dùng để chỉ một hành động xảy ra trước hành động khác trong quá khứ.

  • He taught Drahma his five friends who had taken care of him during his six years.

2. Past Continuous Tense: Thì này dùng để chỉ hành động đang xảy ra ở một thời điểm trong quá khứ.

  • The Buddha walked slowly to the Deer Park in Sarnath near Varanasi where they were staying.
  • They thought that he was enjoying a sensuous life.

Drill: Dùng đúng thì các câu sau

36.  For five hundred births, he ……………….. a Buddha.

37.  Kaundinya ……………………… (be) a brahmin who was appointed as a royal court scholar of King Suddhodana of the Sakyas in Kapilavastu.

38.  Kaundinya was the only scholar who …………. (predict) upon the birth of Prince Siddhartha

39.  Kaundinya ………. …………. the teaching for which he …………… the first bhikkhu and arahant.

40.  Kaundinya ……………………….. the foremost of the five initial disciples of the Buddha

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Write a complete sentence

41.  Bhaddiya / various good deeds.

42.  Bhaddiya / born / very rich family.

43.  The four truths start out / stress / suffering.

44.  people / charge / Buddhism / being pessimistic.

45.  Depcited / walls / the temple are scenes / Buddha's life.

B. Sentence Making: Make another sentence with the same meaning

46.  Bhaddiya ruled his Sākyan principality

Then…………………………………………………

47.  Anuruddha was Bhaddiya’s great friend.

 

UNIT 15:

WHAT IS THE DHARMA?

(Pháp là gì?)

Dharma means Truth and is symbolised by a wheel. The Dharma Wheel is a symbol of the continuous spreading of the Buddha's teachings to help people live more happily.

The basis of the Buddha Dharma or the Buddha's teachings are the Four Noble Truths:

1. The Truth of Suffering

2. The Truth of the Cause of Suffering

3. The Truth of the End of Suffering

4. The Truth of the Path leading to the End of Suffering

When we get sick, we go to a doctor. A good doctor first finds out what illness we have. Next he decides what has caused it. Then he decides what the cure is. Finally, he gives the medicine that will make us well again.

In the same way, the Buddha showed that there is suffering in the world. He explained the cause of this suffering. He taught that this suffering could be ended. Finally, he showed the way leading to the end of suffering.

Look at the table to see the connection between a doctor and the Buddha.

A Doctor tells us

Buddha tells us the truth about

What is wrong with us?

What is the cause of our illness?

That there is a cure.

What we have to do to get well?

The presence of suffering

The cause of suffering

 

The end of suffering

The way to the end of suffering

 

NEW WORDS

The Dharma Wheel (n): Bánh Xe Pháp

symbol /'sIm.b∂l/ noun [C]: biểu tượng

  • The wheel in the Indian flag is a symbol of peace.

(Bánh xe trên cờ Ấn Độ biểu tượng cho hoà bình)

spread /spred/ verb past spread: trải rộng

  • The fire spread very rapidly because of the strong wind. [I]

(Hoả hoạn lan rất nhanh vì gió lộng.)

basis /'beI.sIs/ noun [C] plural bases: nền tảng

  • This design was the basis for Hoang Phap pagoda’s large painting.

(Thiết kế này là cơ sở cho hoạ phẩm lớn của chùa Hoàng Pháp.)

Dharma (n): Phật Pháp

The Four Noble Truths (n): Tứ Diệu Đế

The Nature of Suffering (= Dukkha): Khổ Đế

The Truth of the Cause of Suffering = Dukkha Samudaya: Tập Đế

The End of Suffering = Dukkha Nirodha: Diệt Đế

The Way to End Suffering = Dukkha Nirodha Gamini Patipada Magga: Đạo đế

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. means             B. wheel               C. spreading
  2. A. gives               B. finds                C. gets
  3. A. taught             B. cause               C. go
  4. A. caused            B. explained        C. decided
  5. A. Truth               B. good                C. cure

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. Buddha          B. teachings       C. decides
  2. A. Suffering       B. connection    C. symbolized
  3. A. medicine       B. continuous    C. finally
  4. A. between         B. Noble             C. symbol
  5. A. practising      B. diagnoses      C. happily

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. A wheel is Truth.
  2. The basis of the Buddha Dharma is the Four Noble Truths.
  3. The fourth is to know the cause of Suffering.
  4. The Buddha ways of curing mind disease are the same as the ones of a doctor.
  5. Suffering in the world is the first Truth.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. What is a symbol of The Dharma Wheel?
  2. What are Buddha's teachings?
  3. What is the Path here?
  4. What are four diagnoses of a doctor?
  5. Can you end the suffering? How?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

21. The End of Suffering

22. The Truth of the Cause of Suffering

23. The Way to End Suffering

24. The Four Noble Truths

25. The Nature of Suffering

a. an important principle in Buddhism

b. the noble truth of birthagingillnessdeath

c. the noble truth of the origin of suffering

d. noble truth of the cessation of suffering

e. the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

DESPAIR - SEPARATION - DISPLEASING - CLASSICALLY - AGING

  1. The Four Noble Truths was …………………. …………………………….taught by the Buddha.
  2. Birth is suffering, ……………… is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering;
  3. Sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and………… …………………. are suffering;
  4. Union with what is ………………….. is suffering;
  5. ……………….. from what is pleasing is suffering;

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition: on - to - for - by - for

  1. Suffering is the craving which leads …… renewed existence.
  2. Suffering accompanies ………… delight and lust
  3. Suffering craves …………….. existence.
  4. The Noble Eightfold Path is important ……..…….. everybody.
  5. We should force ………. ... our determination.

B. Rules

Passive voice: Dùng bị động khi muốn nhấn mạnh túc từ. Cách đổi là thêm động từ be+động từ ở past participle.

  • Dharma is symbolised by a wheel.

Possessive case: Sở hữu cách dùng cho người, động vật, thời gian, nơi chốn.

  • the Buddha's teachings

Nhưng lại không dùng cho đồ vật, sự vật

  • The Truth of Suffering
  • The Truth of the Cause of Suffering

Drill 1: Change into passive voice

  1. Everyone understands their own suffering
  2. You should abandon origins
  3. We should follow Buddha’s advice.
  4. We will have to experience the suffering of sickness again and again.
  5. Kaundinya abandoned Siddhartha in disgust.

Drill 2: Write full forms of possessive case if possible

  1. End / Suffering
  2. Noble / Eightfold / Path
  3. Sufferings / future
  4. Bhaddiya / resolution
  5. Banks / Ganges

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Complete the sentences

  1. Not / get / what one / want / suffering.
  2. Path / lead / Cessation / Suffering.
  3. We / never think / abandon / delusions.
  4. Siddhartha / give up / practice / self mortification.
  5. Dharma / Buddha's teaching / the path / enlightenment.

B. Sentence Making: Make another sentence with the same meaning

  1. Sorrow, displeasing union, sparation, unsatisfiying are suffering.

We are ………………………………………………

  1. Suffering seeks delight here and there.

Delight is……………………………………………

  1. We have a sincere wish to avoid suffering permanently. -Sincerely, we wish That………………… …………………………………….……………………
  2. Our concentration should be on the profound meaning of Dharma. We concentrate…………………. ………………………………………………………
  3. We should control our attachment, anger, and other delusions.

Controlling………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

UNIT 16:

THE TRUTH OF SUFFERING

(Sự thật của nỗi khổ)

The Buddha's discovery of the solution to the problem of suffering began with the recognition that there is suffering in life. If people examine their own experiences or look at the world around them, they will see that life is full of suffering or unhappiness. Suffering may be physical or mental.

The Buddha saw that the cause of suffering is selfish desire and greed. People want all kinds of things and want to keep them forever.

However, greed is endless, like a bottomless pit that can never be filled. The more you want, the more unhappy life is. Thus, our limitless wants and desires are the cause of our suffering.

NEW WORDS

discovery /dI'skLv.∂r.i, '-∂`-/ noun: sự khám phá

  • Leonardo made many scientific discoveries. [C]

(Leonardo thực hiện nhiều khám phá khoa học.)

solution /s∂'lu:.ò∂n/ noun specialized: giải pháp

  • The solution of stopping grief is ungreediness.

(Giải pháp để ngăn chặn khổ đau là diệt lòng tham.)

recognition /rek.∂g'nIò.∂n/ noun [U]: sự nhận thức

  • The quick recognition of disease is vital for effective treatment.

(Nhanh chóng nhận ra căn bệnh là cần thiết để điều trị hữu hiệu.)

examine /Ig'zæm.In, eg'-, Ik'sæm-, ek'-, Ig'z{m-/ verb [T]: nhận xét

  • We should examine the possibility diseases, age, and death.

(Ta nên hiểu là có thể già bệnh chết.)

experiences /Ik'spI∂.ri.∂nts, -'spIr.i-/ noun: kinh nghiệm

  • The experience of mental pain varies from one person to another. [U]

(Kinh nghiệm nỗi đau tinh thần khác nhau từng người.)

full /fUl/ adjective -er, -est: đầy ấp

  • Don't talk with your mouth full!

(Đừng nói lúc còn ăn.)

unhappiness /Ln'hæp.I.n∂s/ noun [U]: nỗi bất hạnh

  • One lives in unhappiness when staying acception.

(Người ta sống không hạnh phúc khi còn chấp trước.)

physical /'fIz.I.k∂l/ adjective: thể xác

  • Sometimes we seem to be in a weak physical condition.

(Thỉnh thoảng dường như ta bị xa sút về tình trạng cơ thể.)

mental /'men.t∂l, -∂l/ adjective [not gradable]: tinh thần

  • Physical and mental health may change.

(Sức khỏe thể lựctinh thần rất vô thường.)

selfish /'sel.fIò/ adjective: tự ngã, ích kỷ

  • There is no charity in a selfish life.

(Không có từ thiện với những ai ích kỷ.)

desire /dI'zaI∂r, -'zaIr/ noun: vọng tưởng

  • What a pity fir him to have much desire for wealth. [U]

(Đáng thương cho hắn có nhiều vọng tưởng giàu có.)

keep /ki:p/ verb [T] past kept: chấp trước

  • Keeping the unchanged makes him unhappy.

(Không chịu thay đổi làm hắn khổ sở.)

endless /'end.l∂s/ adjective: vô biên

  • There is no endless things in this world.

(Không có vĩnh cửu trong thế giới này.)

bottomless /'bɔt.∂m.l∂s, 'bL:.∂m-/ adjective [not gradable]: không có đáy

  • The generosity of the local people is bottomless.

(Lòng quảng đại của dân địa phương bao la.)

pit /pIt/ noun [C]: hố sâu

  • They'd dug a deep pit to bury their mind.

(Họ đã đào hố sâu chôn vùi trí tuệ)

fill /fIl/ verb: lấp đầy

  • The time of praying fills with joy.

(Giây phút nguyện cầu rất là an lạc.)

limitless /'lIm.It.l∂s/ adjective [not gradable]: vô hạn

  • The sky is limitless.

(Vũ trụ vô biên.)

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

1. A. problem       B. discovery          C. recognition

  1. A. around          B. mental                C. cause
  2. A. filled             B. desired               C. wanted
  3. A. desires          B. experiences      C. kinds
  4. A. thus              B. full                     C. suffering

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. Buddha          B. discovery         C. solution
  2. A. suffering       B. physical           C. examine
  3. A. recognition   B. unhappiness    C. forever
  4. A. bottomless    B. however           C. desire
  5. A. around           B. limitless           C. experiences

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. The Buddha discovered the life.
  2. The world experiences suffering or unhappiness.
  3. All of the cause of suffering is greed.
  4. Greed is limited.
  5. The more of desire, the more of suffering life.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. What is the Buddha's discovery?
  2. How is life?
  3. According to the Buddha, what is the cause of suffering?
  4. What is the desire of people?
  5. What is the greed like?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

a. SELFISH, b. GREED, c. UNHAPPINESS, d. BOTTOMLESS, e. DESIRE

  1. [……..] an unlucky condition or situation
  2. [……..] in a way a person feels about his or her personality
  3. […...] to want (something), esp. strongly
  4. […...] a very strong wish to continually get more of something,
  5. […...] without a limit or end

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

DOCTOR - SATISFACTION - SUFFERING - WORRIED - IGNORANCE

  1. The Buddha had observed that life is …………...
  2. The tree of craving is rooted in ………………….
  3. The Buddha was just like a good ………………..
  4. None of good food, entertainment and pleasant company can give them complete and lasting……………..
  5. Many people will be too ………………… for the safety and condition of their new possessions to enjoy it.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

  1. The fruit ……………. greed is suffering.
  2. There are branches ………… greed, …………. ill will and ………… anger.
  3. Craving or desire is ………….. a great tree having many branches …………… fruits.
  4. Children …………. a toy shop crave …………. all the attractive things they see ………….. them.
  5. People become dissatisfied ……………..what they already have and desire ……………. more.

B. Rules

1. Dependent clauses:

a. Relative clauses: Bắt đầu bằng who, whom, which, that; nhưng sau danh từ hay đại từ mà nó thay thế

  • The Buddha began with the recognition that there is suffering in life.

b. Noun clauses: làm túc từ cho verb đứng trước nó

  • They will see that life is full of suffering or unhappiness.
  • The Buddha saw that the cause of suffering is selfish desire and greed.

c. Conditional clauses: Bắt đầu bằng if, unless, provided that, supposed that, as long as, ect

  • If people examine their own experiences or look at the world around them, they will see that life is full of suffering or unhappiness

Drill: Điền vào từ nối sau đây cho phù hợp

 [ WHICH - THAT - BEFORE- WHO - AFTER]

  1. Buddha identifies the cause of the illness ……………….. …………………… prescribing a cure.
  2. Desire or craving, and ignorance are the truth of the cause of suffering, …………is the Second Noble Truth.
  3. Craving is the deep-seated desire ………………… all living beings have for the pleasures of the senses and for life itself.
  4. People …………….desire to own many things can never be fully satisfied too.
  5. ………………………the fine meal has been eaten, the beautiful music heard and the pleasant company shared, one is still not content.

2. Word structure: Nhiều từ bắt nguồn từ từ gốc do thêm hậu tố (suffixes) hay thêm tiền tố (prefixes)

discover + y = (danh từ)

suffer + ing = (danh từ)

recognize + tion = (danh từ)

un + happy + ness =(danh từ)

physic + al = (tính từ)

self + ish = (tính từ)

end + less = (tính từ)

bottom + less = (tính từ)

limit + less = (tính từ)

Drill: Complete the right forms of words

  1. Buddha could find a solution to the problem of ……………….. (suffer) in life.
  2. People can ……………. (hard) eat or sleep until they get what they want.
  3. People always seek to enjoy good food, ……………………….. (entertain) and …………...... (please) company.
  4. When people develop their minds and acquire ………………..(wise) through study,…………….(care) thought and…………….(meditate) they will see the Truth.
  5. By overcoming …………… (crave) and …………. (ignore), they will attain ……… (happy) and ………….. (light) just as the Buddha did about 2500 years ago.

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Make complete sentences

  1. Buddha / have / first / look / cause / suffering.
  2. Buddha / first / observe / patient / symptoms.
  3. Direct causes / suffering / desire / crawling / ignorance.
  4. Desire when obstructed / lead / ill will / anger.
  5. Desire / lead / harsh words / violent quarrels / fights / killings.

B. Sentence Making: Make another sentence with the same meaning

  1. One would like to enjoy pleasures again and again.

Repeatedly,………………………………………….

  1. When people succeeded in getting what they want, they may still find their happiness short-lived.

The more ………………………………………….... …………………………………………………………...

  1. Because of desire and greed, people will lie, cheat and steal to get what they want.

Because ……………………………………………..

………………………………………………………

  1. If one is prevented by another person from getting what one desires, one may feel anger with that person.

Unless ………………………………………………

………………………………………………………

  1. Ignorance is the inability to see the truth of things.

People are unable…………………………………… ………………………………………………………….

 

UNIT 17:

THE TRUTH OF THE END OF SUFFERING

(Con đường thoát khổ)

To end suffering, selfish desire must be removed. Just as a fire dies when no fuel is added, so unhappiness will end when the fuel of selfish desire is removed. When selfish desire is completely removed, there will be no more suffering. Our mind will be in a state of perfect peace. Buddhists call this state Nirvana.

The Truth of the Path leading to the End of Suffering is that the way to end suffering is to follow the 'Noble Eightfold Path':

1. RIGHT UNDERSTANDING: means to have a correct understanding of oneself and the world.

2. RIGHT THOUGHT: means to think in the right way.

3. RIGHT SPEECH: means to avoid lying, tale telling, gossiping, backbiting, idle talk and harsh words.

4. RIGHT ACTION: means not to harm or destroy any life, not to steal and not to use sex in a harmful way.

5. RIGHT LIVELIHOOD: means not to live on work that would in any way bring harm to living beings.

6. RIGHT EFFORT: means to do our best to become a better person.

7. RIGHT MINDFULNESS: means to be always aware and attentive.

8. RIGHT MEDITATION: means to keep the mind steady and calm in order to see the true nature of things

NEW WORDS

Right Understanding (n): Chánh Kiến

Right Thought (n): Chánh Tư Duy

Right Speech (n): Chánh Ngữ

Right Action (n): Chánh Nghiệp

Nirvana /nI∂'vɑ:.n∂, n∂`-/, nibbana noun [U]: Niết Bàn

  • Nirvana is a feeling of complete happiness and peace.

(Niết Bàn là cảm giác hoàn toàn hạnh phúcbình an.)

Right Livelihood (n): Chánh Mạng

Right Effort (n): Chánh Tinh Tấn

Right Mindfulness (n): Chánh Niệm

Right Meditation (n): Chánh Định

Noble Eightfold Path: (n): Bát Chánh Đạo

avoid /∂'vɑId/ verb [T]: tránh

  • Avoid doing bad things.

(Tránh làm điều ác.)

lie /laI/ verb lying, past lied: nói dối

  • Lying is severe crime.

(Nói dối là tội lỗi nghiêm trọng.)

tale telling (n): lời bịa đặt

  • tell-tale (US usually tattletale, ANZ dobber) is a person tells someone that someone else has done something bad in order to cause trouble.

(Người bịa đặt  là người nói với người khác là ai đó làm điều gì tệ để gây rối.)

gossip /'gɔs.Ip, 'gɔ:.s∂p/ noun: nói chuyện phiếm

  • I don't like all this idle gossip. [U]

(Tôi không quan tâm các chuyện vặt ngồi lê đôi mách.)

backbiting /'bæk.baI.tIη, -Iη/ noun [U]: nói xấu

  • Backbiting is unpleasant and unkind words that are said about someone who is not there.

(Nói xấu là nói những lời không hay và không tử tế về người không có mặt.)

idle talk/'aI.dl= tɔ:k, tɔ:k/ noun: lời vô bổ

  • Idle talk means using words that make people unwilling to work.

(Lời vô bổ là dùng những lời làm cho người ta lười làm việc.)

harsh words /hɑ:S, hɑ:rS w∂:d, w∂:rd/ noun [C]: ác ngữ = nói lời hung ác

  • Harsh words use a language spoken unpleasant, unkind.

(Lời hung ác thốt ra khó nghe.)

harm /hɑ:m, hɑ:rm/ verb [T]: gây hại

  • The Buddha’s reputation was harmed by Brahma.

(Thanh danh của Đức Phật bị người Bà-la-môn làm hại)

destroy /dI'strɔI/ verb [T]: hủy diệt

  • Grief completely destroyed his confidence.

(Nỗi khổ hoàn toàn làm anh mất niềm tin.)

life /laIf/ noun plural lives: mạng sống, sinh mạng

  • Life is too short to worry.

(Cuộc sống quá mong manh không cần lo nghĩ.)

steal /sti:l/ verb past simple stole, past participle stolen: trộm cắp

  • She admited stealing the money from her friend.

(Cô ta đã thừa nhận lấy trộm tiền của bạn.)

harmful sex (n): tà dâm

  • Bringing unhappiness is harmful sex.

(Tà dâm không mang lại hạnh phúc.)

living being //'lIv.Iη 'bi:.Iη/ noun(n): chúng sinh

  • A nuclear war would kill millions of living beings. [C]

(Chiến tranh nguyên tử sẽ tàn sát hàng triệu sinh linh.)

aware /∂'we∂r, -'wer/ adjective [after verb]: ý thức

  • Are you aware that life stores much of grief?

(Anh có biết là đời đầy đau khổ không?)

attentive /∂'ten.tIv, -Iv/ adjective: tỉnh giác

  • I was very attentive and loving parents.

(Tôi rất tỉnh giác, yêu thương cha mẹ.)

steady /'sted.i/ adjective -ier, -iest: kiên định

  • I'll hold the life steady before the living storms.

(Ta sẽ kiên định sống trước bão tố của cuộc đời.)

nature /'neI.tò∂r, -tò∂`/ noun: bản chất, tự nhiên

  • They realizedthe nature of their problems.

(Họ đã nhận ra bản chất vấn đề của họ.)

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. removed          B. stated            C. ended
  2. A. means              B. dies               C. Buddhists
  3. A. nature              B. state              C. tale
  4. A. mind                 B. desire            C. right
  5. A. steal                 B. means           C. beings

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. suffering     B. desire             C. removed
  2. A. fuel              B. unhappiness     C. completely
  3. A. removed      B. perfect           C. Buddhists
  4. A. Nirvana       B. eightfold        C. understanding
  5. A. gossiping    B. backbiting     C. destroy

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. The fuel of selfish desire is removed by suffering.
  2. A fire stops without fuel.
  3. Nirvana is a state of perfect peace.
  4. The End of Suffering leads to the 'Noble Eightfold Path':
  5. Mastering internally and externally is Right Understanding.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. What must we remove to end suffering?
  2. What will happen if selfish desire is completely removed?
  3. What is the state Nirvana?
  4. What should we do to end suffering?
  5. Name the 'Noble Eightfold Path?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS  

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

a. RIGHT UNDERSTANDING - b. RIGHT ACTION - c. RIGHT LIVELIHOOD - d. RIGHT MINDFULNESS - e. RIGHT EFFORT

  1. [………..] deals with refraining from killing, stealing and lack of chastity.
  2. [………..] is the awareness of one's deeds, words and thoughts.
  3. [………..] is the endeavor to discard evil that has already arisen, to prevent the arising of evil, to develop that good which has already arisen, and to promote that good which has not already arisen.
  4. [………..] is the knowledge of the Four Noble Truths.
  5. [………..] means earning one's living in a way that is not harmful to others.

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

BELIEF - EIGHTFOLD - UNDERSTANDING - THOUGHTS - WEAKENS

  1. Discovered by Buddha Himself, the ..……………. path is the only way to Nirvana.
  2. The extreme of self-torture …………………. one's intellect and the extreme of self-indulgence
  3. The keynote of Buddhism is this Right…………
  4. Buddhism is based on knowledge and not on unreasonable ……………...
  5. Right …………………….. are opposed to ill will.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

  1. The eightfold path consists ……...the eight factors.
  2. Right livelihood are trade ……….deadly weapons, animals for slaughter, slavery, intoxicants, and poisons
  3. Attaining happiness and Enlightenment depends ………….. one's own efforts.
  4. The thoughts ……………renunciation are opposed ………….. sense-pleasures.
  5. Right speech deals ……………….. refraining …………….. falsehood, stealing, slandering, harsh words and frivolous talks

B. Rules: Modal Verbs

Modals

Meanings

Certainty

Can - could

ability (có thể)

60% (có lẽ)

May - might

Possibility/pemission (khả năng/cho phép)

50% (có lẽ)

Must

obligation (phải)

95% (chắc có lẽ)

Shall - should

Offer/opinion/advice  (đề nghị/ý kiến/khuyên)

50% (còn hoài nghi)

will - would

predictions (dự đoán) promise (lời hứa)

99%

Examples:

- Selfish desire must be removed.

- Unhappiness will end when the fuel of selfish desire is removed.

- Our mind will be in a state of perfect peace.

- Work would in any way bring harm to living beings.

Drill: Use suitable modals in blanks

  1. We …………….. practise the permanent cessation of suffering.
  2. The war ……………cause widespread devastation and human suffering
  3. Right livelihood deals with the five kinds of trades that …………….. be avoided by a lay disciple.
  4. Uddaka …………….. not teach him how to stop suffering, old age and death either.
  5. If one wants to get to the top of a mountain, just sitting at the foot thinking about it …………….not bring one there.
  6. One must put the Teaching into practice before desired results ………….. be obtained.
  7. Gotama had never heard of anyone who …………….. solve these problems.
  8. The footprint of an elephant …………….. encompass the footprints of all other footed beings on earth.
  9. Gotama had learnt he …………….. see that he was still subject to old age, sickness, and death.
  10. If we do not have our countless future lives, we …………….. waste our precious human life only for the freedom and happiness of this one short life.

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Complete the sentences

  1. Eightfold path / avoid / extreme / self-torture.
  2. Thoughts / harmlessness / opposed / cruelty.
  3. Effort / root / all achievements.
  4. Meditation / remain / fixed / object / with(not) / wavering.
  5. Effort / needed / develop one's mind.

B. Sentence Making: Make another sentence with the same meaning

  1. The extreme of self-torture retards spiritual progress.

The extreme of self-torture doesn’t ………………… …………………………………………………………

  1. Thoughts of harmlessness tend to purify the mind.

If we ………………………………………………..

  1. Effort is needed to cultivate Good Conduct.

It is …………………………………………………

  1. We are often tempted to take the easy way out of things.

Taking……………………………………………………………………….……………………………

  1. The constant practice of meditation helps to develop a calm and concentrated mind.

The mind is ……………………………..…………..

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