Beginning And Development Of Buddhist Education In Vietnam - Luận Án Tiến Sĩ Của HT Thích Viên Lý

01/10/20234:10 CH(Xem: 1257)
Beginning And Development Of Buddhist Education In Vietnam - Luận Án Tiến Sĩ Của HT Thích Viên Lý
Luận Án Tiến Sĩ của HT Thích Viên Lý
tại Trường University Of The West – Hoa Kỳ


No systematic examination of how Buddhist education began and developed in Vietnam has been hitherto attempted, to the best of my knowledge. The importance of tracing the history of Buddhism in general and Buddhist education in particular is enhanced by the fact that Vietnam is geographically the meeting point of the eastern expansion of Indian culture and the southern expansion of Chinese culture. These two significant cultures met and flourished in Vietnam.

Its study is an extremely urgent academic task because the few currently available sources could disappear due to the prevailing political and cultural developments, on the one hand, and the dispersal of scholars due to the Vietnamese Diaspora, on the other. In the ensuing chapters, the history of Buddhism and Buddhist education in Vietnam is reconstructed to the extent possible under the present conditions. Some of the conclusions are, therefore, tentative.

The basic hypothesis on which the research has been established: (1) Adequate data are gleanable from available resources, textual and oral, to reconstruct this history; (2) Such data and the recording of the experience of educated monastics could serve to understand the main features and challenges of Vietnamese Buddhist education; and (3) A history of Buddhist education thus reconstructed could be the basis for further examination of issues on which disagreements exist among scholars. The research adopted a combination of four approaches: (a) A desk research on primary sources in Chinese and Vietnamese; (b) A critical examination of secondary sources in Chinese, Vietnamese, English and French; (c) A phenomenological analysis of my personal experience as a Buddhist and student of Buddhism and the experiences of my immediate colleagues, friends and teachers; and (d) Validation of data through a fi eld survey conducted with a questionnaire.

The result of this research is presented in eight substantive chapters. Following the opening Chapter outlining the methodology and the plan of the study, Chapter Two on the contextual background to Buddhist education examines (A) the culture and education of Vietnam before the advent of Buddhism, and (B) how Buddhism came to be introduced to Vietnam. An investigation into the earliest form of Buddhist education in Vietnam is taken up in Chapter Three and continued into Chapter Four with a detailed 13 BY TAN NGOC HO • UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST • APRIL 2009 analysis of the development of Buddhist education up to 1975. Chapter Five surveys the information available on educational institutions and records the contribution made by pagodas in various parts of the country. Special attention is given in Chapter Six to the content of Buddhist education, which is presented historically under the three domains of educational objectives, namely cognitive, affective and skill-based. This analysis brings out most eloquently the richness of the substantive content which Vietnamese Buddhist education has inherited from its primary sources of inspiration and further developed through its own ingenuity. An equally signifi cant observation results from Chapter Seven in which traditional methods of instruction are examined with reference to the experience of Vietnamese educators. Chapter Eight takes note of the large number of nationally famous educators and teachers , of both Thiền (Zen) and Pure Land traditions, whose literary and instructional contributions could be outlined. In doing so, special notice has been taken of the role which poetry played as a vehicle of spiritual and philosophical communication among them. Chapter Nine summarizes the substantial findings of the research and ends with a brief note on the present and future of Buddhist education in Vietnam.

Abstract 11
Acknowledgement 15
Chapter One
1.1. Rationale for Study 19
1.2. The Basic Hypothesis 20
1.3. Methodology of Research 21
1.4. Plan of Research 22
1.5. Presentation of results 26
Chapter Two
A. Cඎඅඍඎඋൾ Aඇൽ Eൽඎർൺඍංඈඇ Oൿ Vංൾඍඇൺආ 
Bൾൿඈඋൾ Tඁൾ Aൽඏൾඇඍ Oൿ Bඎൽൽඁංඌආ: 
Tඁൾ Rඈඈඍඌ Oൿ Vංൾඍඇൺආൾඌൾ Cඎඅඍඎඋൾ
2.1. Geography and Early Migrations 27
2.2. Early Historical Dynasties 31
2.3. ntertwined History of Vietnam and China at 
 the Beginning of Vietnamese Cultural Development 33
B. Hඈඐ Bඎൽൽඁංඌආ Cൺආൾ 
Tඈ Bൾ Iඇඍඋඈൽඎർൾൽ Tඈ Vංൾඍඇൺආ
2.4. Sources of Information 35
2.5. ntroduction of Buddhism to Vietnam by Asoka from 
 India: Confl icting Theories and Tentative Conclusion 38
2.6. The Role of Buddhism 
 in the Liberation of Vietnam 44
2.7. Buddhism and Its Two Golden Ages 49
2.8. Buddhism Spreads to the South 52
2.9. Assimilation and diff erentiation 55
2.10. Historic Autonomy of the Pagoda 58
2.11. Verifi cation of Contextual Background 60
2.12 Conclusions on Contextual Background 69
Chapter Three
3.1. Lack of Information 73
3.2. Impact of Chinese Tradition on Vietnamese Buddhism 73
3.3. Vietnam as Melting Pot of Indian and Chinese Cultures 75
Chapter Four
4.1. Buddhism: Origin and Teachings 79
4.2. Early Trends in Vietnamese Education 91
4.3. Buddhist Education during the 1920’s to the 1950s 94
4.4. Developments in Buddhist Education 
 – Introduction of Theravada Tradition 96
4.5. Buddhist Education during 1954 to 1975 98
4.6. Case Study on the Buddhist Education of a typical 
 cohort of Buddhist Monks in the 20th century 100
4.7. Validation of Data and Conclusions 119
Chapter Five
5.1. Absence of Specifi c Records in India, 
 China and Elsewhere 127
5.2. Principal Educational Institutions 
 with Reliable information 134
5.3. Monastery or Pagoda as the Main Institutional Base 
 of Buddhist Education 140
5.4. Institutional Facilities at the Disposal of my Cohorts 151
Chapter Six
6.1. The Buddha as an Educator 155
6.2. The Buddha’s Teachings constituting the Contents 
 of Buddhist Education 165
6.3. Educational Content of the Monastic Education of 
 my Cohorts and Me 192
6.4. Result of Field Research and Conclusion 205
Chapter Seven
7.1. The Buddha’s Stress on Approaches to Instruction 209
 A. Direct Language 210
 B. Remembered Language 211
 C. Written Language 211
 D. Translated Language 212
 1. Gradual Approach 212
 2. Adaptive Approach 212
 3. Illustrative Approach 213
 4. Analytical Approach 213
 5. Experimental Approach 213
7.2. Twelve Practical Methods in Buddhist Education 214
 A. Repetition Method (Sangāyanā) 214
 B. Experimental Method 215
 C. Narrative Explicative Method 216
 D. Active Mindfulness Method 217
 E. Indirect or Subtle Method: 217
 F. Meiotic or Question Method: 218
 G. Investigative Method: 219
 H. Inductive and Deductive Methods: 219
 I. Advance Progressively Method: 220
 J. Regulation Method: 221
 K. Prevention or Prohibition Method: 221
 L. Silent Method: 222
7.3.Concept and Explanation of Expedient or 
 Skillful Methods (Upayakausalya) 223
7.4. Esoteric Methods 228
7.5. The Methods in Buddhist Education of 
 my Cohorts and Me 229
7.6. Conclusion 234
Chapter Eight
8.1. Introduction 235
8.2. Founders of Lineages and Early Teachers 236
8.3. Vạn Hạnh and other Buddhist teachers of 
 Golden Age in Vietnam 250
8.4. Thái Tông of the Trần dynasty, theprecedent of
 a king becoming a monk 265
8.5. The Trinity of Trúc Lâm Patriarchs of Golden Age 272
8.6. Thiền Uyển Tập Anh 282
8.7. The Buddhist teachers in the period of decline 286
8.8. Recent Vietnamese Buddhist teachers 290
8.9. Conclusion 310
Chapter Nine
A. Vංൾඍඇൺආൾඌൾ Bඎൽൽඁංඌආ
9.1.1. Specifi city of Vietnamese Buddhism 315
9.1.2. History of Vietnamese Buddhism: 
 Indian-Buddhist Links 317
9.1.3. Infl uence of Chinese Buddhism 319
9.1.4. Consolidation of Thiền (Zen) and Pure Land 
 Buddhism in Vietnam 321
B. Vංൾඍඇൺආൾඌൾ Bඎൽൽඁංඌඍ Eൽඎർൺඍංඈඇ
9.2.1. What an Examination of the Vietnamese 
 Buddhist Education Reveals 323
9.2.2. Beginnings of Vietnamese Buddhist Education 325
9.2.3. Pagoda as the Center of Vietnamese 
 Buddhist Education 326
9.2.4. Content of Vietnamese Buddhist Education 328
9.2.5. Learning Materials of Vietnamese Buddhist Education 332
9.2.6. Approaches and Methods of Vietnamese 
 Buddhist Education 334
9.2.7. Educators and Teachers in Vietnamese 
 Buddhist Education 335
C. Pඋൾඌൾඇඍ ൺඇൽ ඍඁൾ Fඎඍඎඋൾ 
ඈൿ Vංൾඍඇൺආൾඌൾ Bඎൽൽඁංඌඍ Eൽඎർൺඍංඈඇ
9.3.1. Need for Systematic Study 342
9.3.2. Future of Vietnamese Buddhist Education 344
 A. Primary Texts 347
 B. Secondary Texts 351
 C. Electronic Texts 359
Index 371

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