61. Phù Dung Đạo Giai—Fu-Reng-T’ao-Jai
- ZEN MASTERS
Tổ Đình Santa Ana Hoa Kỳ 2007
Zen master Fu-Reng-T’ao-Jai
sanh năm 1043 tại Nghi Châu (nay thuộc tỉnh ), là của Nghĩa Thanh—Zen master Fu-Reng-Yi-Qing was born in 1043 in Yi-Chou (now the city in southern San-T’ong Province), was a disciple of T’ou-Tzi-Yi-Qing.
• Sư hỏi
Fu-Rong asked T’ou-Tzi: “The words of the Buddhas and ancestors were about everyday things such as drinking tea or eating rice. Besides this, does the teaching have anything special for people or not?” T’ou-Tzi said: “You speak the Cosmic Emperor’s edict. Are you pretending to be Yao, Shun, Yu, and T’ang or not? Fu-Rong wanted to continue speaking but T’ou-Tzi raised his whisk and placed it over Fu-Rong’s mouth, saying: “If you have some intention, then you already deserve thirty hits with the stick!” Fu-Rong then experienced enlightenment. He bowed and turned to leave. T’ou-Tzi said: “Come back! Your reverence!” Fu-Rong ignored him. T’ou-Tzi said: “Have you come to the place of no doubt?” Fu-Rong then covered his ears with his hands.
• Một hôm, sư theo
One day, T’ou-Tzi and Fu-Rong were walking in the vegetable patch. T’ou-Tzi came up to Fu-Rong and handed him his staff. Fu-Rong took it, then walked behind T’ou-Tzi. T’ou-Tzi said: “Is this in accordance with principle?” Fu-Rong said: “Carrying the master’s shoes or staff for him, it can’t be otherwise.” T’ou-Tzi said: “There’s one walking with me.” Fu-Rong said: “Who’s not learning from you?” T’ou-Tzi went back. When evening came, he said to Fu-Rong: “The master we spoke of earlier isn’t finished.” Fu-Rong said: “Master, please speak your mind.” T’ou-Tzi said: “The morning gives birth to the sun. The evening gives birth to the moon.” Fu-Rong then lit the lamp. T’ou-Tzi said: “Your comings and goings, none of it is like that of a disciple.” Fu-Rong said: “Taking care of the master’s affairs, this is in accordance with principle.” T’ou-Tzi said: “Servants and slaves, what household doesn’t have them?” Fu-Rong said: The master is advanced in years. Neglecting him is unacceptable.” T’ou-Tzi said: “So this is how you apply your diligence!” Fu-Rong said: “One should repay kindness.”
• Vào ngày mười bốn
“Ngô niên lục
Thế duyên kim dĩ túc
Sanh bất ái
Tử bất phạ
Tán thủ hoành thân ngoại
Đằng đằng nhận vận hà .”
(Ta tuổi bảy mươi sáu,
Duyên đời nay đã đủ
Sanh chẳng thích
Chết chẳng sợ
Buông tay đi ngang ngoài
Mặc tình vươn bổng nào buộc ràng).
Sau đó, sư .
On the fourteenth day of the eighth lunar month in the year 1118, Fu-Rong asked for a brush and paper. He then wrote this verse:
“I’m seventy-six years old,
My causational existence is now completed
In life I did not favor heaven
In death I don’t fear hell
Hands and body extend beyond the three realms.
What stops me from roaming as I please?
Soon after writing this verse, the master passed away.
Zen master Hui-Nan-Huang-Lung
Hoàng Long sanh năm 1002 tại , của Sở Viên—Zen master Hui-Nan-Huang-Lung was born in 1002 in Xin-Chou, was a disciple of Shi-Shuanghu-Yuan.
• Nhơn dịp sư và
Huang-Long was traveling with Zen master Wen-Yueh. One night they were talking about Yun-Men’s Dharma and Yun-Feng said: “Although Cheng-Kong came after Yun-Men, his Dharma is different.” Huang-Long asked: “What’s different about it?”Yun-Feng said: “Yun-Men’s Dharma is like making cinnabar with nine turns of the grinder, or touching iron and turning it to gold. But Cheng-Kong’s medicine is old hat to the disciples, and if you stick it in the forge it melts away.” Huang-Long grew angry and threw a cushion at Yun-Feng. The next day Yun-Feng apologized and said: “Yun-Men’s bearing is like that of a king. Are you willing to die beneath his words? Cheng-Kong also imparts a Dharma to people. Death words. But these death words, can they also give people life?” Yun-Feng then turned to leave, but Huang-Long pulled him back, saying: “If that’s so, then what teacher now lives up to your meaning?" Y”n-Feng said: “Shi-Shuang-Chu-Yuan’s methods are known everywhere and all the disciples can see that he’s unsurpassed. Huang-Long thought to himself , Master Yueh is a student of Da-Yu, but he’s sending me to see Shi-Shuang. How can this be?”
• Sư liền sửa soạn khăn gói sáng hôm sau
Huang-Long then went to seek out Shi-Shuang. While on the way he heard that Shi-Shuang was not taking students, so he went instead to Mount Heng, where he visited the teacher Fu-Yan Xian. Fu-Yan gave Huang-Long the job of temple secretary. Shortly thereafter Fu-Yan died, and the governor appointed Shi-Shuang to replace him. When Shi-Shuang arrived, he disparaged everything at the temple, ridiculing everything he saw as wrong. Huang-Long was deeply disappointed with Shi-Shuang’s manner. When Huang-Long visited Shi-Shuang in his abbot’s room, Shi-Shuang said: “Cheng-Kong studied Yun-Men’ Zen, so he must surpass Yun-Men’s teaching.
When Yun-Men spared T’ong-Shan Shou-Chu three blows with staff, did T’ong-Shan suffer the blows or not?” Huang-Long said: “He suffered the blows.” Shi-Shuang said fiercely: “From morning till night the magpies ry and the crows caw, all of them in response to the blows they’ve suffered.” Shi-Shuang then sat in a cross-legged position, and Huang-Long lit incense and blowed to him. Shi-Shuang later asked: “Zhao-Chou sai: ‘The old lady of Mount T’ai, I’ll go check her out for you.’ But where was the place he checked her out?” Huang-Long sweated profusely but he couldn’t answer.
• Sư liền vào thất
khi ấy nên đánh hay chẳng nên đánh?” Sư thưa: “Nên đánh.” bảo: “Nghe tiếng ba gậy liền cho là nên ăn gậy, vậy ông từ sáng đến chiều nghe chim kêu trống đánh, tiếng bảng, cũng nên ăn ba gậy. Ăn gậy đến lúc nào mới thôi.” Sư chỉ nhìn sửng mà thôi. bảo: “Tôi nghi không thể làm thầy ông. Giờ đây đã làm thầy ông. Ông hãy đi. Sư xong, . nhắc lời trước: “Nếu ông biết được ý chỉ thì, thường nói: ‘Bà già ở Đài Sơn bị ta ,’ thử chỉ ra chỗ xem?” Sư mặt nóng hực, mồ hôi xuất hạn, không biết đáp thế nào—
When Huang-Lung visited Shi-Shuang in his abbot’s room, Shi-Shuang said, “Cheng-Gong sutdied Yun-Men’s Zen, so he must surpass Yun-Men’s teaching. When Yun-Men spared Dong-Shan Shou-Chou three blows with the staff, did Dong-Shan suffer the blows or not?” Huang-Lung said, “He suffered the blows.” Shi-Shuang said piercely, “From morning till night the magpies cry and the crows caw, all of them in response to the blows they’ve suffered.” Shi-Shuang then sat in a cross-legged position, and Huang-Lung lit incense and bowed him. Shi-Shuang later asked, “Zhao-Chou said, ‘The old lady of Mount Tai—I’ll go check her out for you.’ But where was the placehe checked her out?” Huang-Lung sweated profusely but couln’t answer.
• Hôm sau sư lại vào thất, bị
“Kiệt xuất thị
khám sứ một lai do
Như kim thanh như cảnh
Hành nhơn mạc dỉ lộ vi thù.”
(Giỏi vượt là
nơi khám không mối manh
Hiện nay bốn biển như
Bộ hành thôi chớ ghét ).
The next day, Huang-Long went to Shi-Shuang’s room again. Shishuang berated him unceasingly. Huang-Long said: “Is cursing a compassionate way of carrying out the teaching?” Shi-Shuang yelled: “Try cursing and see!” At these words Huang-Long experienced a great awakening. He the wrote the following verse:
“The eminent adept Zhao-Chou
Had his reasons for checking out the old lady.
Now the four seas are like a mirror,
And a pilgrim no longer hates the road.”
Zen master Fang-Hui-Yang-Qi
sanh năm 992 tại (bây giờ thuộc tỉnh ), và là người Pháp của Sở Viện, và là thầy của . lập ra phái Tế mang tên ông, một trong hai nhánh Tế sau khi thầy . Phái Thiền nầy được các Trung Hoa và mang vào và hiện nay vẫn còn được tại đây—
Zen master Fang-Hui-Yang-Qi was born in 992 in Yuan-Chou (now in Jiang-Xi Province), was a disciple and dharma successor of Shi-Shuang-Chu-Yuan, and the master of Pai-Yun-Shou-Tuan. Yang-Qi founded the Yogi school of Lin-Chi Zen, which bears his name. It is one of the two lineages into which the tradition of the Lin-Chi school divided after Master Shih-Shuang. The strict Zen of Yogi lineage was brought to Japan by Chinese and Japanese masters and still flourishes there today.
When Shi-Shuang Chu-Yuan moved from Nan-Yuan to Mount T’ao-Wu, and then to Shi-Shuang, Yang-Qi followed him, performing administrative affairs in each place. Although Yang-Qi remained with Shi-Shuang for a long time, he never attained enlightenment. Each time he would have an interview, Shi-Shuang would say: “There are a lot of administrative affairs requiring attention. Go do them.” On one occasion when Yang-Qi went to see Shi-Shuang for instruction on practice, Shi-Shuang said: “Director! Someday your descendants will cover the earth. Why are you in a hurry?” One day, Shi-Shuang had just gone out when it suddenly began to rain. Yang-Qi spied his teacher’s walking on a small path, chased him down, and grabbed him, saying: “You’ve got to talk to me now, or else I’m going to hit you!” Shi-Shuang said: “Director! You already completely know how to take care of things, so that’s enough!” Before Shi-Shuang had finished speaking, Yang-Qi experienced great enlightenment. He then kneeled and bowed to Shi-Shuang on the muddy path.
Yang-Qi asked Shi-Shuang: “How is it when the great dark bird cries ‘na! Na!’ and flies down from the clouds into the chaotic mountain peak?” Shi-Shuang said: “I walk in wild grasses. You rush into the village.” Yang-Qi said: “When the senses have no room for even a needle, still there is another question.” Shi-Shuang then shouted. Yang-Qi said: “Good shout.” Shi-Shuang shouted again. Yang-Qi also shouted. Shi-Shuang then shouted twice. Yang-Qi bowed. Shi-Shuang said: “This affair concerns one person taking up and carrying a lotus.” Yang-Qi shook his sleeves and went out.
“Nhà ta phên mái rách
Nền trắng một màu tuyết trắng rơi
Giá lạnh , lòng vạn mối
Người xưa nhà chỉ bóng cây thôi.”
—Zen master Yang Ch’i always talked positively about his contentment and unworldly riches. Instead of saying that he is empty-handed, he talked of the natural sufficiency of things about him as we can see throught this poem concerning his deserted habitation:
My dwelling is now here at Yang-Ch’i
The walls and roof, how weather-beaten!
The whole floor is covered white with
Snow crystal, shivering down the neck,
I am filled with thoughts.
How I recall the ancient masters whose
habitat was no better than the shade of a tree!”
, nếu có của đầy con tim, thì còn chỗ nào dành cho những ấy. Kỳ thật, theo sư thì trữ chỉ toàn tạo khó với những , chính vì thế mà sư nghèo. Theo sư thì của nhà Thiền là . Không riêng gì , mà ngay cả mọi đều là , là tích trữ . Còn Thiền thì dạy tất cả vật , là làm cho trở nên nghèo và khiêm cung từ tốn. , khiến thêm cao ngạo. Vì học tức là nắm giữ, là chấp; càng học càng có thêm, nên ‘càng biết càng lo, càng cao thì càng lắm.’ Đối với Thiền, những thứ ấy chỉ là khổ công bắt gió mà thôi—
According Zen master D.T. Suzuki in the Essays in Zen Buddhism, Book I, this poem is not to convey the idea that he is idly sitting and doing nothing particularly; or that he has nothing else to do but to enjoy the cherry-blossoms fragrant in the morning sun, or the lonely moon white and silvery in a deserted habitation. In the contrary, he may be in the midst of work, teaching pupils, reading the sutras, sweeping and farming as all the master have done, and yet his own mind is filled with transcendental happiness and quietude. All hankerings of the heart have departed, there are no idle thoughts clogging the flow of life-activity, and thus he is empty and poverty-stricken. As he is poverty-stricken, he knows how to enjoy the ‘spring flowers’ and the ‘autumnal moon.’
When worldly riches are amassed in his heart, there is no room left there for such celestial enjoyments. In fact, according to Zen master Yang-Ch’i, the amassing of wealth has always resulted in producing characters that do not go very well with our ideals of saintliness, thus he was always poor. The aim of Zen discipline is to attain to the state of ‘non-attainment.’ All knowledge is an acquisition and accumulation, whereas Zen proposes to deprive one of all one’s possessions. The spirit is to make one poor and humble, thoroughly cleansed of inner impurities. On the contrary, learning makes one rich and arrogant. Because learning is earning, the more learned, the richer, and therefore ‘in much wisdom is much grief; and he that increased knowledge increased sorrow.’ It is after all, Zen emphasizes that this is only a ‘vanity and a striving after wind.’
• Sư hỏi vị Tăng mới đến: “Mây dày đường hẹp xe to từ đâu đến?” Vị Tăng thưa: “Trời không bốn vách.” Sư hỏi: “Đi rách bao nhiêu giày cỏ?” Vị Tăng liền hét.
Yang-Qi asked a monk who had just arrived: “The fog is thick and the road is obscured, so how did you get here?” The monk said: “The sky does not have four walls.” Yang-Qi said: “How many straw sandals did you wear out coming here?” The monk shouted. Yang-Qi said: “One shout. Two shout. After that, then what?” The monk said: “I meet you, Master, but you’re quite busy.” Yang-Qi said: “I don’t have my staff. Sit and have some tea.”
• Sư hỏi vị Tăng mới đến: “Lá rụng mây dồn sớm rời chỗ nào?” Vị Tăng thưa: “Quan Âm.” Sư nói: “Dưới chơn
When another monk arrived, Yang-Qi said to him: “The leaves fall and the clouds gather. Where did you come from today?” The monk said: “From Kuan-Yin.” Yang-Qi asked: How would you say one word from beneath Kuan-Yin’s heels?” The monk said: “I’ve just arrived to see you.” Yang-Qi said: “What is it that you’ve seen?” The monk didn’t answer. Yang-Qi said to a second monk who had also come: “You! Can you say something for this practitioner?” The second monk didn’t answer. Yang-Qi said: “Here are a couple of dumb horses.”
• Sưnăm 1054—He passed away in 1054.
: Yang-Qi-Fang-Hui Sect—Phái Thiền có nguồn gốc từ tên . Đây là nhánh quan trọng nhất trong hai nhánh thiền từ Tế sau khi Sở Viện . Trong Tế người ta gọi nó là . Phái có nhiều quan trọng, trong đó có Vô Môn Tuệ Khai, người sưu tập bộ . Sau nầy các của Vô Môn, nhất là Kakushin, đã vào dòng Tế , hiện vẫn còn . Vào cuối thời nhà Tống, khi bất đầu suy thoái, dòng nơi dung hợp cho tất cả các phái Thiền khác cũng đang và biến mất. Dưới thời nhà Minh, lẫn với nên mất đi riêng của nó, không còn “tâm truyền tâm” nữa—
Yang-Qi-Fang-Hui, a school of Zen originating with the Chinese Ch’an master Yang-Qi-Fang-Hui. It is one of the two most important lineages into which the Lin-Chih split after Shih-Shuang Ch’u-Yuan. As a traditional lineage of Lin-Chih Zen, it is also called the Lin-Chih-Yang-Qi lineage. TheYang-Qi school produced important Zen masters like Wu-Men-Hui-K’ai, the compiler of the Wu-Men-Kuan, and his Dharma successor, Kakushin, who brought the Ch’an of Lin-Chih-Yang-Qi lineage to Japan, where as Zen it still flourishes today. As Ch’an gradually declined in China after the end of Sung period, the Lin-Chih-Yang-Qi school became the catchment basin for all the other Ch'an schools, which increasingly lost importance and finally vanished. After becoming mixed with the Pure Land school of Buddhism, in the Ming period Ch’an lost its distinctive character and ceased to exist as an authentic lineage of transmission of the Buddha-dharma “from heart-minf to heart-mind.”
Zen master Dan-Xia-Zhi-Chun
sanh năm 1064 tại tỉnh , là một trong những của Phù Dung. Ông túc giới vào năm hai mươi tuổi. Sư trụ tại núi Đơn Hà, thuộc tỉnh Tứ Xuyên—Zen master Dan-Xia-Zhi-Chun was born in 1064 in Si-Chuan province, one of the great disciples of Zen master Fu-Rong. He was ordained at the age of twenty. He resided at Mount Dan-Xia.
• Một hôm sư
One day he entered the hall and addressed the monk, saying, “Within the cosmos, inside the universe, at the very center, there is a jewel concealed in form mountain. Dharma master Zhao says that you can only point at tracks and speak of traces of this jewel, and that you cannot hold it up for others to see. But today I split open the universe, break apart form mountain and hold it forth for all of you to observe. Those with the eye of wisdom will see it.” Dan-Xia hit the floor with his staff and said, “Do you see? A white egret stands in the snow, but its color is different. It doesn’t resemble the clear moon or the water reeds!”
Dan-Xia entered the hall and said, De-Shan spoke as follows: “My doctrine is without words and phrases, and truthfully, I have no Dharma to impart to people.” You can say De-Shan knew how to go into the grass to save people. But he didn’t soak the whole body in muddy water. If you look carefully you see he has just one eye. But as for me, my doctrine has words and phrases, and a golden knife can’t cut it open. It is deep, mysterious, and sublime. A jade woman conceives in the night.”
• Sư: “Dừng dừng đúng ngọ còn thiếu nửa, lặng lặng canh ba vẫn chửa tròn, sáu cửa chẳng từng biết hơi ấm, lại qua thường ở trước trăng trong.”—Dan-Xia entered the hall and said, “At high noon is still lacks half. In the quiet night it is still not complete. Households haven’t known the intimate purpose, always going and coming before the clear moon.”
Dan-Xia entered the hall said, “The precious moon streams its shining light, spreading out vast and clear. The water reflects, but does not absorb its essence, nor does the moon rend its shining mind. When water and moon are both forgotten, this may be called cut-off. Therefore, it is said: Things rising to heaven must fall back to earth. What is fully completed is inevitably lacking. Cast off the desire for reputation and don’ look back. If you can do this, you can then walk in the fantastic diversity. And when you have reached this place, have you seen it all? After a long pause Dan-Xia said: If you are not devoted to walking among people, then you fall into the dirt and mud wearing feathers and horns.”
Đơn Hà vào năm 1117. Tháp cốt của sư được dựng lên ở phía nam Hồng Sơn, bây giờ là thành phố Vũ Hán, tỉnh Hồ Bắc—Dan-Xia died in the spring of the year 1117. A monment and the master’s complete remains were placed in a stupa south of Mount Hong, now is Wu-Han city, Hubei province.
Zen master Wei-Zhao-Bao-Feng
quê ở Giản Châu (bây giờ là Giản Dương thuộc tỉnh )—Zen master Wei-Zhao-Bao-Feng’s home town was in ancient Jian-Chou (now is Jian-Yang in Si-Chuan province).
• Một hôm đọc sách, ông giật mình với câu, “Tánh tương cận dã, tập tương viễn dã.” Sư nói: “Phàm Thánh vốn, do tập nên sai khác, tôi biết đó rồi.” Liền đó sư đến Thành Đô làm Sư Thanh Thới ở . Sư túc giới năm mười chín tuổi—One day while reading a book, he was startled by the phrase, “One’s self-nature is near, but realizing it is remote.” He then said: “The mundane and the sacred are of one body, but because of habit and circumstances they are differentiated. I know this to be true.” He then hastened to the city of Cheng-Tu and studied under the teacher Shing-T’ai in Lu-Yuan, receiving full ordaination at the age of nineteen.
• Một hôm sư: “Phật xưa nói, ‘Khi ta mới chính thấy trên thảy đều .’ Sau Ngài lại nói, ‘Sâu thẳm xa xôi không người biết nổi.’ Kẻ thức, khéo đầu rồng đuôi rắn.” Sư liền xuống tòa—One day Bao-feng entered the hall and addressed the monks, saying: "A“ ancient Buddha said, 'W‘en I first gained complete awakening I personally saw that all beings of the great earth are each fully endowed with complete and perfect enlightenment.’ And later he said, ‘It’s a great mystery. No one can fathom it.’ I don’t see anyone who understands this. Just some blowhards.” He then got down from the seat.
• Sư: “Chư Phật đã rồi, cả thảy các ngươi không nên vói nhớ; chư lai chưa ra đời, cả thảy các ngươi không nên ; chính hiện ngày nay ngươi là người gì? Hãy tự xét lấy!.”—Bao-Feng entered the hall and addressed the monks, saying: “All the Buddhas of bygone have already entered nirvana. You people! Don’t be nostalgic about them. The Buddhas of the future have not yet appeared in the world. All of you, don’t be deluded! On this very day who are you? Study this!
•khác sư : “Xưa tự chẳng sanh, nay cũng chẳng diệt, là chết chẳng được mẫu mực. Nơi đây xuất sanh chồn nầy diệt hết, là chịu . Bậc ở trong dòng , nằm trong rừng gai gốc, cúi ngước co duỗi lập bày, hay như thế đó là dùng , cửa đại liền . Nếu chưa như thế, tất cả đứng sựng bít lấp đường xưa.”—Another time, Bao-Feng entered the hall addressed the monks, saying: “The fundamental self is unborn, nor is it annihilated in the present. It is undying. But to be born in a certain place, and to die someplace else, is the rule of being born in a life. Great persons must position themselves in this flow of life and death. They must lie down in the thorny forest. They must be pliable and able to act according to circumstances. If they are thus, then immeasurable expedients, grand samadhis, and great liberation gates are instantly opened. But if they are not yet this way, then defilements, all toilsome dust, and mountains loom before them and block the ancient road.”
năm 1128. của sư bích. Lưỡi và răng của sư không bị lửa đốt cháy. của sư hiện vẫn còn, bên đỉnh phía tây của tự viện—Zen master Wei-Zhao-Bao-Feng died in 1128. His cremated remains were like jewels and blue pearls. His tongue and teeth were undamaged by the flames. His stupa was placed on the western peak near the temple.
Zen master Hui-T’ang-Tsu-Hsin
•Hối Đường sanh năm 1025 tại tỉnh Quảng Đông. Năm mười chín tuổi mù, nguyện cho sư , liền đó mắt sư sáng lại. Sau khi ba năm với vị thầy tiên của sư là Vân Duyện ở , sư bèn từ giả Vân Duyệt ra đi. Sư Vân Duyệt bảo sư nên đến nương với Sư ở . Sư đến ở bốn năm, nhưng không kết quả, sư lại ; sư Vân Duyệt đã , nên sư tìm đến với sư Thạch Sương—Zen master Tsu-Hsin-Hui-T’ang-Huang-Lung was born in 1025 in Kuang-T’ung province. After he was blind at the age of nineteen, his parents vowed to let him to leave home and to join the order. His eyes were back to normal again. After studying for three years with his first Zen teacher, Wen-Yueh in Yun-Feng, he left Yun-Yueh. Master Wen-Yueh advised him to go to see Zen master Hui-Nan at Huang-Bo. Tsu-Hsin then went to study under Hui-Nan; however, he returned to Yun-Feng after four years without gaining any clarity. Tsu-Hsin-Hui-Tang discovered that Wen-Yueh had passed away, so he stayed with Shih-Shuang.
• Một hôm sư đọc
One day he was reading A Lamp Record, when he came upon the passage, “A monk asked Zen master T’o-Fu, ‘What is T’o-Fu’s bamboo grove?’ T’o-Fu replied, ‘One stalk, two stalk slanted.” The monk said, ‘I don’t understand.’ T’o-Fu then said, ‘Three stalks, four stalks crooked.” Upon reading these words Tsu-Hsin-Hui-T’ang experienced great awakening and finally grasped the teaching of his previous two teachers. Tsu-Hsin returned to see Huang-Bo. When he arrived there and prepared to set out his sitting cushion, Huang-Bo said, “You’ve already entered my room.”Tsu-Hsin jumped up and said, “The great matter being thus, why does the master teach koans to the disciples and study the hundred cases of the koan collections?” Huang-Bo said, “If I did not teach you to study in this manner, and you were left to reach the place of no-mind by your own efforts and your own confirmation, then I would be sinking you.”
• Một hôm quan Thái Sử
One day Huang-Shan-Ku, a Confucian poet and a mandarin, came to Hui-T’ang to be initiated into Zen. Hui-T’ang said: “There is a passage in the text you are so thoroughly familiar with which fully describes the teaching of Zen. Did not Confucius declare: ‘Do you think I am holding back something from you, O my disciples? Indeed, I have held nothing back from you?’ Huang-Shan-Ku tried to answer, but Hui-T’ang immediately made him keep silence by saying: “No! No!” The mandarin felt trouble in mind, and did not know how to express himself. Some time later they were having a walk in the mountain. The wild laurel was in full bloom and the air was redolent. Hui-T’ang asked: “Do you smel it?” Huang-Shan-Ku said: “Yes!” Hui-T’ang said: “There, I have kept nothing back from you!” This suggestion from the master at once led to the opening of Huang-Shan-Ku’s mind. Is it not evident now that enlightenment is not a thing to be imposed upon another, but that it is self-growing from within? Though nothing is kept away from us, it is through enlightenment that we become cognizant of the fact, being convinced that we are all sufficient unto ourselves.
“Tích nhơn khứ thời thị kim nhật
Kim nhật y nhiên nhơn
Kim ký tích bất vãng
Thoughts of South Mountain and Mount T’ien-T’ai,
The silly white cloud with no fixed place,
Blown back and forth by the wind.
(Người xưa ra đi ngày này thực,
Ngày nay như cũ người chẳng về,
Nay đã chẳng về xưa chẳng đến,
Mây trắng nước trôi gió quẩn quanh.
Thích Thanh Từ dịch).
Sư năm 1100. Cốt của sư được đưa vào phía đông của “Phổ Giác Tháp.” Ngài được vua ban hiệu “Bảo Giác” Thiền Sư—Tsu-Hsin died in 1100. His remains were intered on the east side of the “Universal Enlightenment Stupa.” The master received the posthumous title “Zen Master Precious Enlightenment.”
sanh năm 1025 tại Hàn Giang, thuộc tỉnh . Từ thuở sư đã có khiếu về nghệ thuật. Năm hai mươi tuổi sư túc giới với Úc ở Trà Lăng. Về sau sư đến với sư , một vị thầy lớn của trường phái , và sư ở đây—Shou-Tuan-Bai-Yun was born in 1025 in Heng-Yang, Hunan province. As youth, he was skilled at scholarly arts. He received ordinationation at age twenty from Zen master named You in Cha-Ling. Later he traveled to study with Yang-Xi, the great teacher of the Lin-Chi lineage, with whom he attained enlightenment.
• Một hôm
“Ngã hữu nhất khỏa,
Cửu bị quan tỏa,
Kim triệu trần tận quang sanh,
Chiếu phá sơn hà vạn đóa.”
(Ta có một châu,
vùi tại ,
Hôm nay trần sạch sáng chiếu,
Soi tột núi sông muôn thú.
Zen Master Thích Thanh Từ dịch).
One day Yang-Xi suddenly asked Bai-Yun: “Under what teacher were you ordained?” Bai-Yun said: “Master You in Tu-Ling.” Yang-Chi said: “I heard that he stumbled while crossing a bridge and attained enlightenment. He then composed an unusual verse. Do you remember it or not?” Bai-Yun then recited the verse:
“I possess a lustrous pearl
Long locked away by dust and toil.
Now the dust is gone and a light shines forth,
Illuminating myriad blossoms with the
mountains and rivers.”
• Bất chợt
Yang-Xi sudenly laughed out loud and jmped up. Bai-Yun was shocked by this behavior so much that he hardly slept that night. Early the next morning Bai-Yun came to question Yang-Xi about what had happened the night before. Yang-Xi asked: “Did you witness an exorcism last night?” Bai-Yun said: “Yes.” Yang-Xi said: “You don’t measure up to it.” This startled Bai-Yun. He asked: “What do you mean?” Yang-Xi said: “I enjoyed someone’s laughter. You fear someone’s laughter.” Upon hearing these words, Bai-Yun experienced great enlightenment. Bai-Yun then served as Yang-Xi’s attendant for a long period of time. He later traveled to Yuan-T’ung temple where, at the recommendation of the abbot Zen master Yuan-T’ung Na, he then assumed the abbacy of the temple and taught at Cheng-T’ien temple. There his reputation became widely known.
• Một ngày nọ có một vị Tăng hỏi sư: “Thế nào là Phật?” Sư đáp: “Chảo dầu không chỗ lạnh.” Tăng hỏi: “Thế nào là
A monk asked Bai-Yun: “What is Buddha?” Bai-Yun said: “A hot soup pot has no cool spot.” A monk asked: “What is the great meaning of Buddhism?” Bai-Yun said: “Push the gourd beneath the water.” A monk asked: “Why did Bodhidharma come from the west?” Bai-Yun said: “Birds fly, rabbits walk.” A monk asked: “Praying to the holy ones, believing in one’s self, there are not the concenrs of a monk. What are the concerns of a monk?” Bai-Yun said: “Dead water does not conceal a dragon.” The monk asked: “And when it’s like that, then what?” Bai-Yun said: “Gain kills you.”
• Một hôm sư
• Một hôm khác sư : “Nếu quả thực được một phen xuất hạn, liền nhằm trên một cọng cỏ hiện lầu quỳnh điện ngọc; nếu chưa quả thực được một phen xuất hạn, dù có lầu quỳnh điện ngọc lại bị một cọng cỏ mất, thế nào xuất hạn? Tự có một đôi tay khéo ấy, đâu từng xem nhẹ vũ tam đài.”—Another day Zen master Bai-Yun entered the hall to address the monks, saying: “If you go out and really work up a sweat, then when you see a single stalk of grass a jade palace is revealed. But if you don’t put forth this type of effort, then even if you have a jade palace, a single stalk of grass will confound you. How can you really work up a sweat like this? As long as your two hands are tired, you’ll never dance gaily in the three palaces.”
68. Nhơn Dũng Bảo Ninh
Zen master Ren-Yong-Bao-Ning
Nhơn Dũng Bảo Ninh quê ở . Từ nhỏ sư đã có một phong thái đỉnh đạt khác thường. Sư giáo. Sau sư đến với thuộc phái . Sư khả năng của sư và thầm biết về sau nầy sư sẽ , bèn nói cợt bằng cách sư “Tọa Chủ Anh Tường.” Sư bỏ núi mà thệ rằng: “Tôi đời nầy hoằng hóa tìm được một minh sư giỏi hơn , thề chẳng quê.” Sau đó sư đến ra mắt . Người ta nói rằng nói chưa dứt một câu thì sư đã “đốn sáng .” Sau khi , sư cùng hành hiệp. sư trụ lại và dạy pháp tại Bảo Ninh khi thị tịch—
Zen master Ren-Yong-Bao-Ning was from Si-Ming. As a young man he possessed a remarkably dignified appearance as well as extraordinary intelligence. He excelled at the study of T’ien-T’ai Buddhism. Later he studied under the great Yun-Men lineage teacher Xue-Tou. Xue-Tou recognized the young man’s wonderful potential as a vessel for the Dharma, but offended Bao-Ning by addressing him with a title “Academic Schoolmaster.” Bao-Ning left Xue-Tou’s mountain with the vow, “I will continue in this life to travel on a pilgrimage to study Zen, and if I don’t find a teacher who surpasses Xue-Tou, I vow to never return home.” Later he came to see Zen master Yang-Xi. It is said that at their first meeting, Yang-Xi did not complete even a single sentence before Bao-Ning attained the “Mind-seal of illuminated awakening” (complete enlightenment). Eventually he settled and taught at the Bao-Ning Temple.
• Một hôm sư
One day Bao-Ning entered the hall to address the monks, saying: “For more than twenty years I carried a pack and bowl, traveling everywhere within the four seas, studying with more than ten different Zen good advisors. But I never caught a glimpse of my own house, and I was just like a senseless stone. All the worthies I practiced with couldn’t provide me a single positive benefit. During that entire time I didn’t learn a thing. But fortunately, my pitiable life was suddenly blown by the karmic winds into Jiang-Ning, where, jostled by the crowd, I was pushed into an old run-down temple on a busy intersection. There, I just served as a porridge vendor, receiving and helping everyone who came along. My duties never let up. There was sufficient salt and vinegar and there was enough gruel and rice. I passed some time in this fashion. I previously never imagined, even in a dream, that I would realize the Buddhadharma in this way."
• Một hôm khác, vị Tăng đến hỏi sư: “Thế nào là Phật?” Sư đáp: “Gần lửa trước phỏng.” Vị Tăng hỏi: “Thế nào là đạo?” Sư đáp: “Trong bùn có gai.” Vị Tăng hỏi: “Thế nào là người trong đạo?” Sư đáp: “Rất kỵ đạp đến.” Vị Tăng hỏi tiếp: “Cổ nhân nói gió lạnh thổi lá rụng, vẫn vui cố nhân về, chưa biết ai là cố nhân?” Sư đáp: “Hòa Thượng.” Vị Tăng hỏi: “Chính hiện nay lại có người nào là tri âm?” Sư đáp: “Ông mù trong thôn thầm .”—Another day a monk asked Bao-Ning: “What is Buddha?” Bao-Ning said: “Add wood to the fire.” The monk asked: “What is the way?” Bao-Ning said: “There are thorns in the mud.” The monk asked: “Who are people of the Way?” Bao-Ning said: “Those that hate walking there.” The monk asked: “An old worthy said ‘Though the cold wind withers the leaves, it is still a joy when an ancient returns.’ Who is an ancient?” Bao-Ning said: “Master Yang-Xi is long gone.” The monk said: “Right here and now, is there someone who can comprehend this?” Bao-Ning said: “The eyeless old villager secretly taps his head.”
• Hôm khác sư
“Gió thu mát,
Vận tùng hay,
Khách chưa về,
Nhớ cố hương.”
Another day Zen master Bao-Ning entered the hall to recite a verse:
“A cold autumn wind,
The wind drones in the pines,
The wayward traveler,
Thinks of his home.”
Thanh Liễu Chơn Yết sanh năm 1089 tại tỉnh , . Sư năm mười một tuổi, đến năm mười tám tuổi sư thi đậu . Sau đó sư đi đến Thành Đô học tập kinh điển—Xing-Liao-Zhen-Yieh was born in 1089 in Si-Chuan province, China. He left home at the age of eleven and passed his scriptural examinations on the Lotus Sutra at the age of eighteen. He then traveled to Cheng-Tu, where he continued his scriptural study.
•trên đường , sư gặp Đơn Hà. Đơn Hà hỏi sư: “Thế nào là chính mình trước không kiếp?” Sư để , thì Đơn Hà đã chận lại bảo: “Ngươi còn thế sao, hãy đi đi!”—One time on the way of traveling, he met Tan-Xia. Tan-Xia asked him: “What is the self before the empty eon?” When Xing-Liao began to answer, Tan-Xia stopped him and said: “You are disturbed now. Go!”
• Một hôm sư lên ngọn Bát-Vu, bỗng nhiên khế ngộ. Trên đường sư
“Nhật soi cô phong biếc,
Nguyệt đến nước trong khe,
Chớ hướng tất lòng an.”
Nói xong Đơn Hà liền xuống tòa.
Thanh Liễu bèn tiến đến trước tòa thưa: “Ngày nay lại chẳng lừa được con.” Đơn Hà hỏi: “Ngươi thử nhắc lại ngày nay ta xem?” Sư giây lâu. Đơn Hà bảo: “Sẽ nói ông khắp đất.” Sư liền đi ra.
One day he went to nearby Bo-Yu Peak, he suddenly experienced enlightenment. Upon returning to see Tan-Xia, his teacher immediately knew what had transpired. Before Tan-Xia could speak, Tan-Xia slapped him saying: “You were going to tell me what you know!” He bowed and retreated. The next day, Tan-Xia entered the hall and said to the monks this verse:
“The sun shines on a solitary green peak,
The moon reflects in the cold creek water.
The sublime mystery of the ancestors,
Is not found in the small mind.”
Tan-Xia then got down from the seat. Xing-Liao came forward and said: “A talk like the one you gave today won’t deceive me again.” Tan-Xia said: “Then explain it to me and we will see if you understand.” Xing-Liao was silent. Tan-Xia said: “I will say you caught a glimpse of it.” Xing-Liao then went out.
• Có vị Tăng hỏi: “Chư Phậtnhằm trong đống lửa xoay bánh xe , lại quả thực đấy chăng?”Thanh Liễu bảo: “Ta lại nghi đấy.” Vị : “Hòa Thượng vì sao lại nghi?” Sư đáp: “Hoa đồng thơm đầy đất, chim rừng chẳng biết thơm.”—A monk asked Xing-Liao: “All the Buddhas in the three worlds have turned the great wheel of Dharma into the flames. Has this ceased or not?” Xing-Liao laughed out loud and said: “I have doubts about it.” The monk said: “Master, why do you have doubts about this?” Xing-Liao said: “The fragrance of wild flowers fills the road. The secluded bird does not know it’s spring.”
• Vị Tăng thưa: “Chẳng rơilại nhận chuyên thân hay không?” Sư đáp: “Chỗ đi người đá chẳng đồng công.”—A monk asked: “Without letting go of wind and color, is it still possible to pivot oneself or not?” Xing-Liao said: “Whre the stone person walks, there is no other activity.”
• Một hôm sư vào nhà trù xem làm bún, chợt thùng thông lủng đáy.la hoảng: “Uổng lắm!” : “Thùng thông lủng đáy tự nên , vì sao lại phiền não?” thưa: “Hòa Thượng thì được.” Sư nói: “Quả thực đáng tiếc một thùng bún.”—One day Xing-Liao went into the kitchen and saw a pot of boiling noodles. Suddenly, the bottom fell out of the pot. The monks there were crestfallen, saying: “Oh, what a waste!” Xing-Liao said: “An overturned bucket is a joy. Why are you disturbed?” the monks said: “The master can take delight in it.” Xing-Liao said: “Really, it’s a shame to waste a pot of noodles!”
Thanh Liễu năm 1151, ngài được vua ban “Ngộ Không .”—Xing-Liao died in 1151. He received the posthumous name “Zen Master Enlightened Emptiness.”
Zen master Wu-Xin-Tzu-Xin-Huang-Lung
Ngộ Tân ở Hoàng Long, sanh năm 1044 tại Thiều Châu. Sư và túc giới tại tuviện lúc còn rất trẻ. Về sau sư tới viếng Hoàng-Long-Tổ Tâm thuộc dòng Lâm Tế—Zen master Wu-Xin-Tzu-Xin-Huang-Lung was born in 1044 in Shao-Chou. As a very young man, he entered Fo-Tuo Monastery where he gained ordination. Later he traveled to visit the teacher Huang-Lung-Zu-Xin of the Lin-Chi lineage.
• Một hôm ngài
One day he entered the hall to preach his disciples: “O brothers, to be born as a human being is a rare event, and so is the opportunity to listen to discourses on Buddhism. If you fail to achieve emancipation in this life, when do you again expect to achieve it? While still alive, be therefore assiduous in practicing meditation. The practice consists of abandonments. The abandonments of what? You may ask. Abandon your four elements (bhuta), abandon your five aggregates (skandha), abandon all the workings of your relative consciousness (karmavijnana), which you have been cherishing eternity; retire within your inner being and see into the reason of it.
As your self-reflection grows deeper and deeper, the moment will surely come upon you when the spiritual flower will suddenly burst into bloom, illuminating the entire universe. The experience is incommunicable, though you yourselves know perfectly well what it is. This is the moment when you can transform this great earth into solid gold, and the great rivers into an ocean of milk. What a satisfaction this is then to your daily life! Being so, do not waste your time with words and phrases, or by searching for the truth of Zen in books; for the truth is not to be found there. Even if you memorize the whole Tripitaka as well as all the ancient classics, they are mere idle words which are of no use whatever to you at the moment of your death. ”
Zen master Tzong-Yueh Tou-Shuai
sanh năm 1044 tại Cám Châu, bây giờ là tỉnh Giang Tây—Zen master Tzong-Yueh Tou-Shuai was born in 1044 in Kan-Chou, a place in modern Jiang-Xi province.
• Sư làm “thủ chúng” ở
Tzong-Yueh was the head monk at Tao-Wu Monastery, and on one occasion he led a group of monks on a journey to visit Zen master Yun-Kai Zhi. After only a few sentences of conversation, Zhi knew that Tzong-Yueh possessed special ability. Zhi laughed and said: “I observe that your breath is unusual. Why is it that when you speak your breath is like that of a drunkard?” Tzong-Yueh’s face became flushed and he broke out in sweat, and he said: “Ihope the master won’t spare your compassion.” Zhi continued to talk to Tzong-Yueh, goading him. Tzong-Yueh was flushed and didn’t understand. He asked to have a private interview with Zhi. In the abbot’s room, Zhi asked Tzong-Yueh: “Have you ever seen Zen master Fa-Chang?” Tzong-Yueh said: “I have read the record of his talks. I understood it all, so I don’t want to see him.”
Zen master Zhi continued to ask Tzong-Yueh: “Have you seen Zen master Tung-Shan Wen?” Tzong-Yueh said: “Kuan-Xi’s disciples don’t have any brains. If you put on a cotton garment that smells like piss, what good is it?” Zhi said: “You should go and practice at that place that smells like piss.” Following Zhi’s instructions, Tzong-Yueh went and practiced with Zen master Wen at Tung-Shan, and deeply realized his great teaching. Later Tzong-Yueh returned to see Zen master Zhi. Zhi asked: “Now that you’ve seen Kuan-Xi’s disciples, what about the great matter?” Tzong-Yueh said: “Had it not been for your instructions=, it would hae slipped past me my entire life.” Tzong-Yueh then bowed and retreated.
•sư : “Tai mắt một bề trong, ỏ yên trong hang vắng, gió thu vào cổ tùng, trăng thu sanh sông biếc. khi ấy lại cầu chơn, hai con khỉ đột bốn đuôi duỗi.” Nói xong sư bèn hét lên một tiếng—One time he entered the hall to address the monks, saying: “When a person’ eyes and ears are clear, then he resides in a remote mountain valley. The autumn wind rustles the ancient pines and the autumn moon reflects from the cold waters. A patch-robed monk who reaches that place must go still further to realize the truth, for this is still just two apes with four tails hanging down.” Afetr saying this the master shouted.
•khác sư : “Đẩu Suất trọn không , lại kêu rùa đen là trạnh, không thể nói diệu bàn huyền, chỉ biết khua môi động lưỡi, khiến cho trong xem thấy trong mắt một giọt máu, chớ có đổi sân làm hỷ người tiếu ngạo yên Hà đó chăng? Sư giây lâu nói: “Thổi lên một bản thăng bình nhạc, mong được sanh bình chưa hết sầu.”Another time Tou-Shuai entered the hall to address the monks, saying: “I can’t differentiate anything. I see a hard-shelled turtle and I mistakenly call it soft-shelled. I can’t talk any wondrous talk, or speak about truth. I just flap my lips and drum my tongue. When all the monks in the world see me, they laugh so hard in derision that their tears turn to blood. Don’t I turn their derision to happiness? Are you laughing at me now?” After a pause, the master said: “I blowe a light hearted tune on my flute and it causes people to forget a lifetime of troubles.”
• Một hôm sư: “Mới thấy tân xuân lại sang đầu hạ, bốn mùa dường tên sáng tối như thoi, bỗng chợt mặt hồng đầu bạc, riêng dụng , cày lấy vườn ruộn của mình, chớ phạm lúa mạ của người, như thế kéo cày mang bừa, phải là con trâu trắng ở núi Tuyết mới được. Hãy nói lỗ mũi ở chỗ nào? Sư giây lâu lại nói: “Bậy! Bậy!”—One day Zen master Tou-Shuai enterd the hall to address the monks, saying: “Fist comes the new spring, and then it’s the beginning of summer. The four seasons pass like a shuttle. Before you know it, a red-faced babe has turned into an old white-hair. You must truly exert yourself and use extraordinary effort. Cultivate your own field, and don’t steal someone else’s seedings. Applying yourself in this way, your cultivation will certainly result in finally seeing the white ox on snow mountain.”
“Bốn mươi tám năm,
Thánh phàm giết sạch,
Chẳng phải ,
Long An đường trơn.”
Nói xong sư , được vua ban “Chơn Sư.”
In the winter of 1091, after bathing, the master assembled the monks and recited this verse:
“After forty-eight years,
Sacred and mundane are completely killed off,
Although not heroic,
The Longan road is slippery.”
Upon finishing the verse, the master passed away (still sitting). He received posthumous title of “True Stillness Zen Master.”
ở sanh năm 1024, của . Khởi đầu sư học triết lý Luận của phái , ông đọc thấy câu nầy ‘Khi vào chỗ thấy đạo thì trí hay và lý hay tâm thể trực giácngầm hợp nhau, cảnh hay và thần hay , không còn có chủ thể hay năng chứng và khách thể hay sở chứng nữa. từng phái rằng đã không năng chứng sở chứng thì làm sao có chứng. Các nhà không đáp được lời ấy. đang ở , đến phái bằng câu nói ‘Như người uống nước, nóng lạnh tự biết.’ Đọc câu ấy tự hỏi ‘Nóng lạnh có thể biết được, vậy cái gì khiến ta tự biết.’ Sư mang nỗi thắc mắc ấy đến hỏi các của phái , nhưng không ai đáp được. Có người đáp: “Ông muốn rõ ý ấy hãy sang phương nam gõ cửa phái Thiền Phật.” Thế là rốt cùng đi đến với Thiền tông—
Zen master was born in 1024, was a disciple of Bai-Yun-Shou-T’uan. He first studied the Yogacara school of Buddhist philosophy and came across the following passage, ‘When the Bodhisattva enters on the path of knowledge, he finds that the discriminating intellect is identified with Reason, and that the objective world is fused with Intelligence, and there is no distinction to be made between the knowing and the known.’ The anti-Yogacarians refuted this statement, saying that if the knowing is not distinguishing from the known, how is knowledge at all possible? The Yogacarians could not answer this criticism, when Hsuan-chang, who was at the time in India, interposed and saved his fellow-monks in the Yogacara. His answer was: “It is like drinking water; one knows by oneself whether it is cold or not.” When Fa-Yan read this answer, he questioned himself ‘What is this that makes one know thus by oneself.’ This was the way he started on his Zen tour, for his Yogacara friends, being philosophers, could not enlighten him, and he finally came to a Zen master for instruction.
• Khi gặp
“Sơn tiền nhất phiến nhàn điền địa
Xoa thủ đinh ninh vân
Kỷ độ mãi lai hoàn tự mại
Vị lân tùng trúc dẫn thanh phong.”
(Trước núi một mảnh đất
Tay chấp tận tình hỏi
Mấy thuở bán ra rồi mua lại
Vui thay tùng trúc quyện thanh phong).
—Upon meeting Bai-Yun, Fa-Yan inquired to him about a story concerning Nan-Xan and the Mani Jewel. Just when he finished asking this question, Bai-Yun-Shou-T’uan shouted at Fa-Yan, causing him to instantly attain enlightenment. Fa-Yan then thanked Bai-Yun-Shou-T'’an by offering the following verse:
“Before the mountain quietly lies a patch of farm
Repeatedly, with folded hands before my chest, I asked the elders.
How often have you sold it and bought it back by yourself?
I like the pines and bamboos that bring forth the cloudless wind.”
According to Fa-Yan, Zen is practical, not reasoning or talking. Thus, in all his preaching, he seldom talked about Zen. One day, after hearing Yuan-Wu, one of his disciples, taught about Zen, he told Yuan Wu: “You are all right, but you have a little fault.” Yuan-Wu asked two or three times what that fault was. The master said: "Yo“ have altogether too much of Zen." Yuan-Wu protested: “If one is studying Zen at all, don’t you think it the most natural thing for one to be talking of it? Why do you dislike it?” Fa0Yan replied: “When it is like an ordinary everyday conversation, it is somewhat better.” A monk happened to be there with them, asked: “Why do you specially hate talking about Zen?” Fa-Yan said: “Because it turns one’s stomach.”
• Ngày 25 tháng 6 năm 1104, sư
“Giàu hiềm ngàn miệng ít
Nghèo hận một thân nhiều.”
Nói xong sư nhắn : “Trân trọng!” Tối đêm đó sư
---On the twenty-fifth day of the sixth month of 1104, Fa-Yan entered the hal and bade the monks farewell, saying: “Zhao-Chou had some final words. Do you remember them? Let’s see if you can recite them!” When no one responded, Fa-Yan then recited Zhao-Chou’s words:
“Fortune few among the thousand
But one has countless pains and sorrows.”
Fa-Yan then said: “Take care!” Later that night Fa-Yan died.
Cũng được biết với tên
Muốn trong thanh và sắc, thì chỉ còn cách chết mà thôi.’ Đến khi , sư cũ, đến với . Lối dạy của là lấy dao chích vào cánh tay cho máu chảy rồi bảo mỗi giọt máu chảy ra tứ ( là nơi mà đã ra tông của ngài) và câu trên rằng phải đem ra mà thủ đắc Thiền. Được gợi hứng như thế, bái phỏng rất nhiều . Họ rất cảm khích bởi sự của sư, có vị còn nghĩ rằng sẽ là người dựng lên một mới trong của ngài . sư tìm một vị thầy thiền đã . Ngài về phương nam , gặp Pháp Diểãn, và ở lại cho trong nhiều năm. Nhưng không chịu Thiền của sư. Sư nghĩ rằng cứ một mực nói ngược lại với mình, bèn thốt lên những lời rồi bỏ đi.
Khi sư sắp sửa rời khỏi , thì mới nói: “Đợi đến khi bệnh ngặt, bấy giờ ông mới nhớ đến ta. Sư ở , mắc chứng thương hàn rất nặng, cố nhặt hết chỗ bình nhật bằng tất cả thiền đã từng trước kia, nhưng chẳng giúp được gì. Sư bèn nhớ đến lời của . Sau đó sư đở hơn nên với Thầy . thấy đã lại. Từ đó sư ở bên Thầy rất lâu. Ngay cả khi đã và đã được từ , ngài vẫn ở lại bên thầy để tâm linh—
Ke-Ch’in-Fo-Kuo (1063-1135), also called Yuan-Wu Ko-Chin, a native of Szechuan, was born in a Confucian family. He was one of the famous monks in the Sung Dynasty and the author of a Zen text book known as the ‘Pi-Yen-Lu.’ As a child he learned the Confucian classics by heart. One day he went to Diệu Tịch monastery where he happened to read Buddhist books, and felt as if he were recalling his old memories. He thought to himself, “I must have been a monk in my previous life.” Since then he was attracted to Buddhism and entered a Buddhist monastery, where he devoted himself to the study of the sutras.
After nearly dying from an illness, he came to a conclusion that mere scholarly erudition could not bring one to the living truth of the Buddha-dharma. It is to say: “The right way to the attainment of Nirvana as taught by the Buddhas is not to be found in words. I have been seeking it in sounds and forms and no doubt I deserve death.” When he recovered, he quitted his old method, and came to a Zen master named Chen-Chueh-Sheng. Master Sheng’s instruction consisted in making his own arm bleed by sticking a knife into it and remarking that each drop of the blood came from T’sao-Ch’i (T’sao-Ch’i is where the Sixth Patriarch Hui-Neng founded his school) which meant that Zen demanded one’s life for its mastery. Thus inspired, Ke-Ch’in-Fo-Kuo visited many Zen masters.
They were all well impressed with his attainment, and some even thought that it was he who would establish a new original school in teaching of Lin-Chi. Finally, he set out to find an enlightened Zen master. He traveled to south China, where he eventually found and stayed with Master Wu-Tsu-Fa-Yen, whom he served as an attendant for many years. However, Fa-Yen refused to confirm his view of Zen. He thought Fa-Yen was deliberately contradicting him . Giving vent to his dissatisfaction in some disrespectful terms, he was about to leave Fa-Yen, who simply said: “Wait until you become seriously ill one day when you will remember me.” While at Chin-Shan, Fo-Kuo contracted a fever from which suffered terribly.
He tried to cope with it with all his Zen experiences which he attained before, but to no purpose whatever. He then remembered Fa’Yen’s prophetic admonition. Therefore, as soon as he felt better, he went back to Wu-Tsu monastery. Fa-Yen was pleased to have his repentant pupil back. Since then he stayed at Wu-Tsu for a long time. Even after he had realized profound enlightenment under Wu-Tsu and had received from him the seal of confirmation, he stayed with him to train further until the master's death.
Zen master Ke-Xin-Fo-Kua was born in 1063, a Chinese Zen Master of the lineage of Lin-Chi Zen. He was a student and Dharma successor of Wu-Tsu Fa-Yen. He was the teacher of Ta-Hui-Tsung-Kao. A gifted youth who thoroughly studid the Confucian classics. He is said to have written one thousand words everyday. During a visit to Miao-Tzu Monastery, he obseved some Buddhist scriptures and was surprised by a strong feeling that he had previously possessed them. He then left home and received full-ordination with Vinaya Master Tzu-Shing. When he came to Jin-Shan, he became seriuosly ill. Remembering Zen master WuTzu’s words, he pledged to return to study with him when he recovered.
• Một hôm
Cô nàng gọi mãi những
Chỉ thằng nghe ra thôi.
(Tần hô Tiểu Ngọc nguyên vô sự
Chỉ yếu Đàng lang nhận đắc thanh).
For the maid she calls, why so often, when there’s no special work to do?
Only this, perchance her voice is overheard by her lover.”
• Nghe đọc xong, viên quan trẻ nói: “Vâng, vâng, thưa.” Nhưng ông đừng có nghe theo dễ dàng như thế—When this was recited, the young officer said, “Yes, yes, master.” But he was told not to take it too easily.
• Từ ngoài trở vào, vừa nghe cuộc đàm đạo nầyhỏi: “Nghe nói đọc bài thơ Tiêu diễm cho quan đề hình lúc tôi ra ngoài, Đề hình ó hiểu không?”—Fo-Kuo heard of this interview when he came back from outside, and asked: “I am told you recite the romantic poem for the young visitor while I was away. Did he understand?
•đáp: “Y tiếng.”—Fa-Yen replied: “He recognizes the voices.”
•nói: “Câu thơ nói ‘Chỉ thằng nghe ra thôi, nếu như đề hình nghe ra tiếng’ y ở chỗ nào?”—Fo-Kuo said: “As long as the line says, ‘The thing is to have the lover overhear her voice,’ and if the officer heard this voice, what is wrong with him?”
• Khôngthẳng câu hỏi, bảo: “Ý Tây lại là gì?” Cây bá trước sân. Thế là thế nào?” Tức thì tầm mắt mở ra mà thấy của Thiền. Sư chuồn ra khỏi thất, chợt thấy một con gà đang xóc cánh mà gáy. Sư nói: “Đấy há không phải là tiếng?” Rồi sư làm sau đây để trình lên thầy—Without directly answering the question, the master abruptly said: "What is the Patriarch's idea of coming from the West? The cypress-tree in the court-yard. How is this?” This at once opened Fo-Kuo’s eye to the truth of Zen. He rushed out of the room when he happened to see a cock on the railing give a cry, fluttering its wings. He said: “Is this not the voice?” His famous verse of enlightenment:
“Kim áp hương tiêu
Sảnh ca tùng lý túy phù qui,
nhất đoạn phong lưu sự,
Chỉ hứa giai nhơn độc tự tri.”
(Quạ vàng hương kín túi gấm thêu,
Nhịp ca tùng rậm say dìu về,
Một đoạn phong lưu thuở ,
Chỉ nhận giai nhơn riêng tự hay.
Thích Thanh Từ dịch).
“The golden duck vanishes into the gilt brocade.
With a rustic song, the drunkard returns in the woods.
A youthful love affair.
Is known only by the young beauty.”
•góp lời thêm: “Việc lớn của Phật và Tổ, chẳng phải người căn nhỏ chất kém mà có thể tạo nghệ được. Ta giúp vui cho ngươi đó.”—Master Fa-Yen added: “he great affair of life that has caused the Buddha and patriarchs to appear among us is not meant for small characters and inferior vessels. I am glad that I have been a help to your delight.”
•là một trong những xuất sắc nhất trong thời của ngài. Nhờ có ngài và em trai của ngài (kém hơn ngài 20 tuổi) là Vô Môn Khai Tuệ, cũng là môn của dòng Tế, mà đã một thời , trước khi các tổ truyền từ “tâm .”—Yuan-Wu Ko-Chin was one of the most important Zen masters of his time. With masters like him and the twenty-years-younger brother, Wu-Men-Hui-K’ai, also in the lineage of Lin-Chi Zen, Chinese Zen reached the last peak of its development in China before the dharma transmitted by the patriarchs from heart-mind to heart-mind.
• Sau khi, miền bắc. Tại đây các quan trong triều và ngay cả đã ngài làm viện trưởng các Thiền lớn khác nhau. Khi người Khuất Đan miền bắc , ngài đã miền nam. , chẳng bao lâu sau, ngài đã quê hương và hoằng hóa ở đây lúc thị tịch—After Fa-Yen passed away, Yuan-Wu set out for the north, where he was appointed by high state officials and finally by Emperor Hui-Tsung himself to the abbacy of various large Zen monasteries. When the Kitan conquested the north of China, Yuan-Wu returned to the south. However, he soon returned to his home province and was active there as a Zen master until his death.
Cuối tháng tám năm 1135, có vẻ hơi nhuốm bệnh, sư
Zen Master Hui-Ch’in-Fo-Chien
, quê ở , , nhiều năm Thiền với nhiều vị và nghĩ mình . Nhưng không chịu cho , nên lòng phẩn hận. Sư từ giả đồng bạn là . Nhưng thì và nhờ ngài mà triệt đê. Phật Giám cũng , nhưng thì muốn đi . , khuyên sư hãy ở lại với thầy, bảo rằng: “Chúng ta mới rời nhau hơn một tháng nhưng so với lần trước, thấy tôi ra sao?” Sư đáp: “Chỗ ngờ của tôi là ở đấy.” của cuộc nầy là đã với thầy cũ của mình. đó xãy ra trong một tháng cách mặt đồng bạn, đã tạo ra mộ của , khiến cho Phật Giám lấy làm lạ đâu là và của sự ấy—
Zen Master Hui-Ch’in-Fo-Chien of T’ai-Ping, China, studied Zen for many years under different masters and thought he was fully accomplished in it. But Fa-Yen of Mount Wu-Tsu Shan refused to sanction his view, which offended him greatly. He left the master, as did his friend Fo-Kuo. But the latter returned to Wu-Tsu and attained full realization under him. Fo-Chien also came back after a while, but his real intention wa to go somewhere else. Fo-Kuo, however, advised him to stay with the master, saying: “We have ben separated from each other more than a month, but what do you think of me now since I saw you last?” Fo-Chien replied: “This is what puzzles me.” The significance of this conversation is that Fo-Kuo, as was already recorded under him, had his enlightenment soon after he came back to his former master. This fact, occuring during the month’s separation from his friend, had caused such a change in Fo Kuo’s spiritual life that Fo-Chien wondered what was the cause and meaning of this transformation.
• Phật Giámở lại núi với của mình và người bạn tốt . Một hôm, đề cử giữa và một thầy Tăng—Fo-Chien decided to stay at Wu-Tsu Shan with his old master Fa-Yen and his good friend Fo-Kuo. One day, Fa-Yen referred to the conversation between Chao-Chou and a monk:
• Thầy Tăng hỏi: “Thói nhà củalà gì?”—The monk asked: “What is your way of teaching?”
•đáp: “Lão Tăng tai điếc, xin nói to hơn.”—Chao-Chou replied: “I am deaf; speak louder, please.”
• Thầy Tăng lặp lại câu hỏi.bèn nói: “Ông hỏi thói nhà của ta, và ta hiểu thói nhà của ông rồi đó.”—The monk repeated the question. Then Chao-Chou said: “You ask me about my way of teaching, and I have already found out yours.”
•nầy làm cho của Phật Giám khai thông tỏ ngộ. Bấy giờ sư hỏi : “Xin thầy chỉ thị cho của Thiền là gì?”—This conversation served to open Fo-Chien’s mind to enlightenment. He now asked the master: “Please point out for me what is the ultimate truth of Zen.”
•đáp: “Sum la vạn tượng được .”—Fa-Yen replied: “A world of multiplicities is all stamped with the one.”
• Phật Giámrồi lui ra—Fo-Chien bowed and retired.
• Về sau khi Phật Giám nói chuyện về Thiền, có nhắc đến chuyệnhỏi về Trấn châu. Nói đến chỗ ‘không có lý để ,’ hỏi: “Đã bảo nằm sẵn trong tay, tại sao lại còn không lời , không lý để tỏ bày?” Nhưng hôm sau : “Đông Tự chỉ muốn có một hạt châu mà thôi, nhưng cái điều đưa ra chỉ là cái giỏ tre .” nầy, nhưng khuyên sư hãy gặp riêng Hòa Thượng—Later when Fo-Kuo and Fo-Chien were talking on Zen, mention was made of Tung-Szu’s asking Yang-Shan about the bright gem from the sea of Chen. When the talk turned to ‘no reasoning to advance,’ Fo-Kuo demanded, “When it is said that there are no words for reply, nor is there any reasoning to advance?” Fo-Chien did not know what reply to make. On the following day, however, he said: “Tung-Szu wanted the gem and nothing else, but what Yang-Shan produced was just an old wicker work.” Fo-Kuo confirmed the view, but told him to go and see the master personally.
• Một hôm, bước vàocủa , vừa sắp mở lời thì thậm tệ. Phật Giám khốn nạn phải lính quýnh rút lui. liêu, nằm mà lòng hận thầy không nguôi—One day, when Fo-Chien came to the master’s room and was at the point of addressing him, the master rebuked him terribly. Poor Fo-Chien had to retire in a mostawkward maner. Back in his own quarters, he shut himself up in the room while his heart was in rebellion against the master.
Fo-Kuo found this quietly, and came to his friend’s room and knocked at the door. Fo-Chien called out, “Who is it?” Finding that it was his dear friend Fo-Kuo, he told Kuo to come in. Fo-Kuo innocently asked: “Did you see the master? How was the interview?” Fo-Chien now reproached him saying: “It was according to your advice that I have stayed here, and what is the outcome of the trick? I have been terribly rebuked by that old master of ours.” Fo-Kuo burst out into a hearty laugh and said: “Do you remember what you told me the other day?” Fo-Chien discontentedly said: “What do you mean?” Fo-Kuo then added: “Did you say that while Tung-Szu wanted the gem and nothing else, and what Yang-Shan produced was just an old wicker workd?”
Khi nghe đồng bạn nhắc lại câu nói của mình, Phật Giám thấy ngay yếu điểm của mình. Rồi thì cả hai được
75. Zen master Lung-Men-Ch’ing-Yuan-Fo-Yen (?-1120)
Chinese Zen master who was first a student of Vinaya; later, when reading the Lotus Sutra, he came across the passage, “This Dharma is something that goes beyond the realm of thought and discrimination.’ This impressed him, so he came to his teacher and asked what was this Dharma transcending intelligence. The teacher failed to enlighten him, who then saw that mere learning and scholarship could not solve the ultimate problem of this existence subject to birth and death.
• Rồi sau đó
Fo-Yen now travelled south in order to see Fa-Yen of T’ai-P’ing. While begging through the country of Lu, he stumbled and fell on the ground. While suffering pain, he overheard two men railing at each other, when a third one who interceded remarked, ‘So I see the pasions stil cherished b both of you.’ He then had a kind of enlightenment. But to whatever questions he asked Fa-Yen, the answer was, ‘I cannot surpass you; the thing is to understand all by yourself.’ Sometimes Fa-Yen said, ‘I do not understand myself, and I cannot surpass you.’ This kind of remark incited Ch’ing-Yuan’s desire all the more to know about Zen. He decided get the matter settled by his senior monk Yuan-Li, but Li pulled him by the ear and going around the fire place kept on saying, ‘The best thing is to understand all by yourself.’ Ch’ing-Yuan insisted: ‘If there is really such a a thing as Zen, why not uncover the secret for me? Otherwise, I shall say it is all a trick.’ Li, however, told him: ‘Some day you will come to realize all that has been going on today between you and me.’
When Fa-Yen moved away from T’ai-P’ing, Ch’ing-Yuan left him, and spent the summer at Ching-Shan, where he got very well acquainted with Ling-Yuan. Ch’ing-Yuan now asked his advice, saying, ‘Lately, I have come to know of a master in the city whose sayings seem to suit my intelligence much better.’ But Ling-Yuan persuaded him to go to Fa-Yen who was the best of Zen masters of the day, adding that those whose words he seemed to understand best were merely teachers of philosophy and not real Zen masters.
• Thanh Viễn theo
Ch’ing-Yuan followed his friend’s advice, and came back to is former master. One cold night he was sitting alone and tried to clear away the ashes in the fire-place to see if there were any piece of live charcoal left. One tiny piece as large as a pea happened to be discovered way down in the ashes. He then reflected the truth of Zen would also reveal itself as one dug down the rock-bed of consciousness. He took up the history of Zen known as the Transmission of the Lamp from his desk, and his eye fell upon the story of the P’o-Tsao-To (broken range), which unexpectedly opened his mind to a state of enlightenment.
• Sau khi, sư làm một như sau—After this great enlightenment, he composed the below verse:
Chim rừng hót líu lo
Khoát áo ngồi đêm thâu
Khơi lửa, bình sinh tỏ
thành bếp đổ.
Việc sáng nhưng người mù
Khúc nhạc ai hòa ca
Nghĩ đến khăng khăng nhớ
Cửa mở, ít người qua.
(Điêu điêu lâm điểu đề
Bát hỏa ngộ bình sinh
Sự hạo mê
Khúc đạm tùy năng họa
Niệm chi vĩnh bất vong
Môn khai thiểu nhân quá).
The birds are too-tooing in the woods,
with the garment covered up
I sit alone all night.
A tiny piece of live charcoal deeply
buried in the ashes tells the secret of life:
The cooking range is broken to pieces
when the spirit knows where to return.
Revealed everywhere shines the truth,
but men see it not, confused is the mind;
Simple though the melody is,
who can appreciate it?
Thinking of it,
long will its memory abide with me;
Wide open is the gate,
but how lonely the scene!
Zen master Ta-Hui-Zong-Kao
Dòng Thiền thứ hai mươi hai—Thiền sư
Ta-Hui-Zong-Kao—The Twenty-second Chinese Zen Generation (Sixteenth after Hui-Neng)—He was born in 1089 in Ning-Kuo, a famous monk in the Sung dynasty. He was a disciple of Yuan-Wu. He left home at the age of seventeen to live at Hui-Yun (Wisdom Cloud) Temple, and received ordination there the following year. As a young man Dahui happened to encounter a copy of the Record of Yunmen. He often traveled and practiced under various famous Zen masters. Later he studied under a Zen master named Zhan-T’ang. Master Zhan recognized Da-Hui’s unusual ability; however, told him: “You haven’t experienced enlightenment and the problem is your ordinarily intellectual understanding!”
After master Zhan died, Da-Hui traveled to Yuan-Wu’s residence, T’ian-Ning Temple, where he heard the master address the monks. In his talk, Yuan-Wu spoke of an incident in which a monk asked Yun-Mên “What is the place where all Buddhas come forth?” Yun-Mên answered, “The water on East Mountain flows uphill.” Then someone in the audience asked Yuan-Wu, “What is the place where all Buddhas come forth?” Yuan-Wu said, “Warm breeze come from the South, but in the palace there’s a cold draught.” Upon hearing these words, Da-Hui’s past and future were cut off.
Zen master Ta-Hui, one of Yuan-Wu’s chief disciples, played a major role in shaping koan practice. He was a great advocate of ‘satori,’ and one of his favorite sayings was: “Zen has no words; when you have ‘satori’ you have everything.” Hence his strong arguments for it, which came, as has already been shown, from his own experience. Until then, he was quite ready to write a treatise against Zen in which he planned to disclaim everything accredited to Zen by its followers. His interview with his master Yuan-Wu, however, rushed all his former determination, making him come out as a most intense advocate of the Zen experience.
• Năm 1163, sư gọi
Sanh cũng chỉ thế ấy
Tử cũng chỉ thế ấy
Có kệ cùng không kệ
Là cái gì quan trọng
Viết xong kệ, sư ném bút .
In 1163 he composed a verse with large brushstrokes:
Birth is just so.
Death is just so.
So, as for composing a verse,
Why does it matter?
Ta-Hui then throw down the brush and passed away.