- Mục Lục
- Chapter I: Đại Cương Về Thiền—an Overview On Zen
- Chapter Ii: Hai Mươi Tám Tổ Ấn Độ—twenty-eight Indian Patriarchs
- Chapter Iii: Lục Tổ Trung Hoa—six Patriarchs In China
- Chapter Iv: Những Thiền Sư Sau Lục Tổ Huệ Năng 01-20
- Chapter Iv: Những Thiền Sư Sau Lục Tổ Huệ Năng 21-40
- Chapter Iv: Những Thiền Sư Sau Lục Tổ Huệ Năng 41-60
- Chapter Iv: Những Thiền Sư Sau Lục Tổ Huệ Năng 61-76
- Chapter V: Thiền Sư Việt Nam—vietnamese Zen Masters 01-50
- Chapter V: Thiền Sư Việt Nam—vietnamese Zen Masters 51-100
21. Viên Trí Đạo Ngô—Yuan-Zhi-T’ao-Wu
- ZEN MASTERS
Tổ Đình Santa Ana Hoa Kỳ 2007
22. Thúy Vi—Wu-Xue-Shui-Wei
23. Hy Vận—Huang-Po-Hsi-Yun
24. Đại An—T’a-An
25. Thần Tán—Shen-Tsan
27. Tòng Thẩm—Chao-Chou-T’sung-Shen
28. Lương Giới—Tung-Shan-Lieng-Chieh
29. Khánh Chư—Shih-Shuang-Qing-Zhu
30. Đại Đồng—T’a-T’ong
31. Thiện Hội—Shan-Hui
32. Nghĩa Huyền—Lin-Chi-I-Hsuan
33. Đạo Minh—Chen-Tzun-Tsu-T’ao-Ming
34. Huệ Tịch—Yang-Shan-Hui-Ji
35. Hương Nghiêm—Hsiang-Yan
36. Trùng Hiển Tuyết Đậu—Chong-Hsien-Hsueh-Tou
37. Đức Sơn Tuyên Giám—Te-Shan-Hsuan-Chien
38. Đạo Ưng—Yun-Ju-T’ao-Ying
39. Nam Tháp—Kuang-Yong-Nan-Ta
40. Toàn Khoát Nham Đầu—Yan-T’ou
Zen master Yuan-Zhi-T’ao-Wu
Viên Trí sanh năm 769 tại Dư Chương (nay thuộc tỉnh ), là của Dược Sơn—Zen Master Yuan-Zhi-T’ao-Wu was born in 769 in Yu-Zhang (now in Jiang-Xi Province), was a disciple of Yao-Shan.
• Một hôm, hỏi sư: “Ngươi đi về đâu?” Sư thưa: “Đi dạo núi về.” bảo: “Chẳng rời thất nầy, đem gì về, nói mau!” Sư thưa:
“Sơn thượng điểu nhi đầu tợ tuyết
Gián để du ngư mang bất triệt.”
(Trên núi chim con đầu tợ tuyết
Đáy khe cá lội lo chẳng cùng).
One day, Zen master Yao-Shan asked T’ao-Wu: “Where have you been?” T’ao-Wu said: “Walking on the mountain.” Yao-Shan said: “Without leaving this room, quickly speak!” T’ao-Wu said:
“On the mountain the birds are white as snow.
At the bottom of the brook the fish never stop swimming.”
• Sư cùngđứng hầu . bảo: “Chỗ trí chẳng nghĩ đến, tối kỵ, nói tới, nói tới tức đầu mọc sừng, Trí ( sư) hiểu thế nào?” Sư liền đi ra. hỏi : “Sư huynh Trí vì sao không đáp lời Hòa Thượng?” bảo: “Hôm nay ta đau lưng, y đã biết, ngươi hỏi lấy y.” đến hỏi sư: “Vừa rồi, sao không đáp lời Hòa Thượng?” : “Huynh đến hỏi đi.”—One day, T’ao-Wu and Yun-Yan were with Yao-Shan, Yao-Shan said: “Saying that there is a place where wisdom does not reach violates the taboo. Any saying this will grow horns. Monk Zhi (T’ao-Wu), what do you say?”T’ao-Wu then went out. Yun-Yan then asked Yao-Shan: “Why didn’t elder brother answer you?” Yao-Shan said: “My back hurts today. Anyway, he knows why. Why don’t you go ask him?” Yun-Yan then went to T’ao-Wu and said: “Why didn’t you answer the master today?” T’ao-Wu said: “Go ask the master.”
•hỏi : “Bồ Đề lấy gì làm tòa?” đáp: “Lấy làm tòa.” lại hỏi câu ấy. đáp: “Lấy các làm tòa.” lại đem câu ấy hỏi sư. Sư đáp: “Ngồi thì cho y ngồi, nằm thì cho y nằm. Có một người chẳng ngồi chẳng nằm, hãy nói mau! Nói mau!” Qui Sơn liền bỏ đi—Kui-Shan asked Yun-Yan: “With what does bodhi sit?” Yun-Yan said: “It sits with nonaction.” Yun-Yan then asked Kui-Shan the same question. Kui-Shan said: “It sits with all empty dharmas.” Yun-Yan then asked T’ao-Wu: “What do you say?” T’ao-Wu said: “Bodhi sits listening to it. Bodhi lies down listening to it. But as for the one who neither sits nor lies down, speak! Speak!” Kui-Shan got up and left.
•hỏi sư: “Ở đâu đến?” Sư đáp: “Khán bệnh đến.” hỏi: “Có bao nhiêu người bệnh?” Sư đáp: “Có người bệnh, có người chẳng bệnh.” nói: “Có người không bệnh đâu không phải Trí đầu đà?” Sư đáp: “bệnh cùng chẳng bệnh đều không can hệ việc nó, nói mau! Nói mau!”—Kui-Shan asked T’ao-Wu: “Where did you go?” T’ao-Wu said: “To see a doctor.” Kui-Shan asked: “How many people are sick?” T’ao-Wu said: “Some are sick, some are not.” Kui-Shan said: “Is one who is not sick has nothing to do with it?”
Zen Master Wu-Xue-Shui-Wei
Thúy Vi là của Đơn Hà—Zen Master Wu-Xue-Shui-Wei was a disciple of Zen master T’an-Xia.
• Trong buổi gặp gỡ đầu tiên vớiĐơn Hà, sư hỏi: “Thế nào là thấy chư Phật?” Đơn Hà quở: “Thật tự đáng thương, cầm khăn lau làm gì?” Sư lùi ba bước. Đơn Hà bảo: “Lầm!” Sư ba bước. Đơn Hà lại bảo: “Lầm! Lầm!” Sư giở một chân lên, xoay thân một vòng, đi ra. Đơn Hà bảo: “Được tức được, cô phụ chư Phật khác.” Sư do đây ý chỉ, về trụ núi Thúy Vi tại Chung Nam Sơn— Shui-Wei asked T’an-He: “What is the teaching of all Buddhas?” T’an-He exclaimed: “Fortunately, life is fundamentally wonderful. Why do you need to take up a cleaning cloth and broom?” Wu-Xue retreated three steps. T’an-He said: “Wrong.” Wu-Xue again came forward. T’an-He said: “Wrong! Wrong!” Wu-Xue then lifted one foot into the air, spun in a circle and went out. T’an-He said: “Such an answer! It’s turning one’s back on all the Buddhas.” Upon hearing these words, Wu-Xue attained great enlightenment.
•đến hỏi sư: “Không biết Nhị Tổ mới thấy Tổ có sở đắc gì?” : “Nay ngươi thấy ta lại có sở đắc gì?” huyền chỉ—When Wu-Xue was abbot of a temple, T’ou-Tzi Yi-Qing said to him: “I’m not clear about what resulted when the Second Patriarch first saw Bodhidharma.” Zen master Wu-Xue said: “Right now you can see mee. What is the result?” At that moment T’ou-Tzi suddenly awakened to the profound mystery.
• Một hôm, sư đi trong, tiến đến trước lễ, thưa: “Mật chỉ từ qua, dạy người thế nào?” Sư dừng chút. lại thưa: “Xin thầy chỉ dạy.” : “Lại cần cái bầu nước nhỏ thứ hai sao?” tạ lễ lui ra. : “Chớ lấp gốc.” thưa: “Thời tiết đến, gốc mầm tự sanh.”—One day, Zen master Shui-Wei was walking in the Dharma hall. T’ou-Tzi walked up in front of him, bowed to him and said: “The essential meaning of the First Patriarch coming from the west, how does the master demonstrate this to people?” The master stopped walking and stood there. T’ou-Tzi said: “Please demonstrate it, Master.” Shui-Wei said: “Do you want another bucket full of polluted water?” T’ou-Tzi then bowed in thanks. Shui-Wei said: “Don’t make matters worse.” T’ou-Tzi said: “It’s the season when seeds grow everywhere.”
• Một trong nhữngnổi bậc vào đời nhà Đường. Ông là của một tên . quê tại tỉnh Phúc Kiến, là của Bá Trượng—One of the outstanding Zen masters during the T’ang dynasty. He was the master of another famous Zen master named Lin-Chi. Zen master Huang-Bo-Xi-Yun was born in Fu-Jian Province, was a disciple of Bai-Zhang.
• Trong khi đi dạo núi
The other monk tried to lead Huang-Bo across, saying: “Come over! Come over!” Huang-Bo said: “If Elder Brother wants to go across, then go ahead.” The other monk then began walking across the top of the water, just as though it were dry land. The monk turned to Huang-Bo and said: “Come across! Come across!” Huang-Bo yelled: Ah! You self-saving fellow! If I had known this before I would have chopped off your legs!” The monk cried out: “You’re truly a vessel for the Mahayana, I can’t compare with you!” And so saying, the monk vanished.
• Một hôm, Bá Trượng hỏi: “Chững chạc to lớn từ đâu đến?” Sư thưa: “Chững chạc to lớn từ Lãnh Nam đến.” Bá Trượng hỏi: “Chững chạc to lớn sẽ vì việc gì?” Sư đáp: “Chững chạc to lớn chẳng vì việc gì khác.” Sư liềnhỏi: “Từ trước chỉ dạy thế nào?” Bá trượng lặng thinh. Sư thưa: “Không thể dạy người sau là dứt hẳn mất.” Bá trượng bảo: “Sẽ nói riêng với ngươi.” Bá Trượng . Sư sau thưa: “Con đến riêng .” Bá trượng bảo: “Nếu vậy, ngươi sau sẽ không cô phụ ta.”—One day, Bai-Zhang asked: So grand and imposing, where have you come from?” Huang-Bo said: “So grand and imposing, I’ve come from south of the mountains.” Bai-Zhang said: “So grand and imposing, what are you doing?” Huang-Bo said: “So grand and imposing, I’m not doing anything else.” Huang-Bo bowed and said: “From high antiquity, what is the teaching of this order?” Bai-Zhang remained silent. Huang-Bo said: “Don’t allow the descendants to be cut off.” Bai-Zhang then said: “It may be said that you are a person.” Bai-Zhang then arose and returned to his abbot’s quarters. Huang-Bo followed him there and said: “I’ve come with a special purpose.” Bai-Zhang said: “If that’s really so, then hereafter you won’t disappoint me.”
• Một hôm Bá Trượng hỏi sư: “Ở đâu đến?” Sư thưa: “Nhổ nắm dưới núiđến.” Bá trượng hỏi: “Lại thấy đại trùng chăng?” Sư làm tiếng cọp rống. Bá trượng cầm búa . Sư vỗ vào chân Bá Trượng một cái. Bá trượng cười bỏ đi. Sau đó Bá trượng dạy chúng: “Dưới núi có con đại trùng, các ngươi nên xem. Lão Bá Trượng này hôm nay đích thân bỗng gặp và bị cắn một cái.”—One day, Bai-Zhang asked Huang-Bo: “Where have you been?” Huang-Bo said: “I’ve been picking mushrooms at the base of Mount Great Hero.” Bai-Zhang said: “Did you see a big tiger?” Huang-Bo roared. Bai-Zhang picked up an ax and assumed a pose as if to strike Huang-Bo. Huang-Bo then hit him. Bai-Zhang laughed “Ha, ha,” and returned to his room. Later Bai-Zhang entered the hall and said to the monks: “At the base of Great Hero Mountain there’s a tiger. You monks should go take a look at it. Just today, I myself suffered a bite from it.”
• Sư ở chỗ. Một hôm, toàn chúng đi hái trà, hỏi: “Đi đâu?” Sư thưa: “Đi hái trà.” lại hỏi: “Đem cái gì hái?” Sư đưa con dao lên. bảo: “Tất cả đi hái trà.”—Once, Huang-Bo was at Nan-Quan-Pu-Yuan’s temple and participated in picking tea leaves. Nan-Quan asked him: “Where are you going?” Huang-Bo said: “To pick tea leaves.” Nan-Quan said: “What will you use to pick them?” Huang-Bo took his knife and held it straight up. Nan-Quan said: “You’ve only acted as guest. You haven’t acted as host.” Huang-Bo stabbed three holes in the air. Nan-Quan said: “Everyone is going to pick tea leaves.”
• Hôm nọ,bảo sư: “Lão Tăng ngẫu hứng làm bài ca “Chăn Trâu,” mời hòa. Sư thưa: “Tôi tự có thầy rồi.”—One day, Nan-Quan said to Huang-Bo: “I have a song called ‘Ode of the Oxherd.’ Can you recite it?” Huang-Bo said: “I am my own teacher right here.”
• Sư từ giả đi, tiễn đến cổng, cầm chiếc mũ của sư đưa lên hỏi: “Trưởng Lão thân to lớn mà chiếc mũ nhỏ vậy?” Sư thưa: “Tuy nhiên như thế, đều ở trong ấy.” bảo: “Vương vậy.” Sư đội mũ ra đi—Huang-Bo was taking his leave of Nan-Quan. Nan-Quan accompanied Huang-Bo to the monastery gate. Lifting up Huang-Bo’s hat, Nan-Quan said: “Elder, your physical size is not large, but isn’t your hat too small?” Huang-Bo said: “Although that’s true, still the entire universe can fit inside it.” Huang-Bo then put on his hat and left.
• Một hôm sư
So Huang-Bo returned to his seat and said: “You people are all dreg-slurpers. If you go on a pilgrimage seeking in this way you’ll just earn people’s laughter. When you see eight hundred or a thousand people gathered somewhere you go there. There’s no telling what trouble this will cause. When I was traveling on pilgrimage and cam upon some fellow ‘beneath the grass roots’ (a teacher), then I’d hammer him on the top of the head and see if he understood pain, and thus support him from an overflowing rice bag! If all I ever found were the likes of you here, then how would we ever realize the great matter that’s before us today? If you people want to call what you’re doing a ‘pilgrimage,’ then you should show a little spirit! Do you know that today in all the great T’ang there are no Zen teachers?”
• Có vị Tăng hỏi: “Bậc
Thọ nhận chén cơm manh áo của người mà để qua suông, người sáng mắt . Người sau hẳn sẽ bị người tục lôi đi. Phải tự xem cái gì là việc trên mặt? Nếu hội liền hội, hội giải tán đi. Trân trọng!”—A monk then asked: “In all directions there are worthies expounding to countless students. Why do you say there are no Zen teachers?” Huang-Bo said: “I didn’t say there is no Zen, just that there are no teachers. None of you see that although Zen master Ma-Tsu had eighty-four Dharma heirs, only two or three of them actually gained Ma-Tsu’s Dharma eye. One of them is Zen master Kui-Zong of Mount Lu. Home leavers must know what has happened in former times before they can start to understand. Otherwise you will be like the Fourth Ancestor’s student Niu-T’ou, speaking high and low but never understanding the critical point.
If you possess the Dharma eye, then you can distinguish between true and heritical teachings and you’ll deal with the world’s affairs with ease. But if you don’t understand, and only study some words and phrases or recite sutras, and then put them in your bag and set off on pilgrimate saying: ‘I understand Zen,’ the will they be of any benefit even for your own life and death? If you’re unmindful of the worthy ancients you’ll shoot straight into hell like an arrow. I know about you as soon as I see you come through the temple gate. How will you gain an understanding? You have to make an effort. It isn’t an easy matter. If you just wear a sheet of clothing and eat meals, then you’ll spend your whole life in vain. Clear-eyed people will laugh at you. Eventually the common people will just get rid of you. If you go seeking far and wide, how will this resolve the great matter? If you understand, then you understand. If you don’t, then get out of here! Take care!”
năm 850. Sau khi sư được vua ban hiệu “Đoạn Tế Thiền Sư”—He died in 850. After his death, he received the posthumous title “Zen Master Removing Limits.”
Zen Master T’a-An
sanh năm 793 tại Phước Châu (bây giờ thuộc tỉnh Phúc Kiến), của Bá Trượng—Zen Master T’a-An was born in 793 in Fu-Chou (in modern Fu-Jian Province), was a disciple of Zen master Bai-Zhang.
• Khigặp Bá Trượng, xong, sư thưa: “Con muốn cầu biết Phật, thế nào là phải?” Bá Trượng bảo: “Thật là người cỡi trâu tìm trâu.” hỏi: “Sau khi biết thì thế nào?” Bá Trượng nói: “Thì như người cỡi trâu về đến nhà.” lại hỏi: “Chẳng sau thế nào?” Bá Trượng bảo: “Như người cầm roi không cho nó ăn lúa mạ của người.” Sư nhơn đây ý chỉ, chẳng đi tìm đâu nữa—When T’a-An met Bai-Zhang, he bowed and asked: “This student seeks to know Buddha. How can I do so?” Bai-Zhang said: “It’s like riding the ox looking for the ox.” T’a-An said: “After finding it, then what?” Bai-Zhang said: “It’s like riding the ox and arriving home.” T’a-An then asked: “How does one ultimately uphold and sustain this?” Bai-Zhang said: “It’s like an oxherd who, grasping his staff, watches the ox so that he doesn’t transgress by eating other people’s sprouts and grain.” Upon receiving this instruction T’a-An sought nothing further.
Why are you running around from place to place, like a thirsty deer chasing a mirage? When will you ever succeed? You want to be a Buddha, but you won’t recognize that your topsy-turvy contradictory ideas; your deluded understandings; your mind which believes in innumerable things, purity and pollution; that it is just this mind that is the authentic original awakened mind of Buddha. Where else will you go to find it? I’ve spent the last thirty years here on Mount Kui, eating Kui-Shan’s rice, shitting Kui-Shan’s shit, but not practicing Kui-Shan’s Zen! I just mind an old water buffalo. If he wanders off the road into the grass then I pull him back by his nose ring. If he eats someone else’s rice shoots then I use the whip to move him away. After such long training period he’s become very lovable, and he obeys my words. Now he pulls the Great Vehicle, always staying where I can see him the whole day through, and he can’t be driven away.
• Cả thảy các ngươi, mỗi người có hòn ngọc lớn
The six senses, day and night they emanate light and this is called the ‘light emanating samadhi.’ You yourself can’t comprehend it, but it is reflected in the four great bodies. It is completely supported within and without, and never unbalanced. It’s like someone with a heavy load on his back, crossing a bridge made from a single tree trunk, but never losing his step. And now if you ask what is it that provides this support and where is it revealed, then I just say that not a single hair of it can be seen. No wonder the monk Zhi-Kong said: ‘Searching inside and out you’ll find nothing. Actions in the causational realm are a big muddle.’ Take care!”
• Có vị Tăng hỏi: “Tất cả thi vi là dụng của, thế nào là pháp thân?” Sư đáp: “Tất cả thi vi là dụng của .” Vị Tăng hỏi: “Lìa , thế nào là thân xưa nay?” Sư đáp: “Đất, nước, lửa, gió, thọ, tưởng, hành, thức.” Vị Tăng hỏi: “Cái ấy là chứ gì?” đáp: “Chúng không là .”—A monk asked: All actions are the function of the dharmakaya. What is the dharmakaya?” T’a-An said: “All actions are the function of the dharmakaya.” The monk asked: “Apart from the five skandhas, what is the original body?” T’a-An said: “Earth, water, fire, wind (the four elements of form), sensation, perception, mental action, and consciousness.” The monk asked: “Aren’t these the five skandhas?” T’a-An said: “They are not the five skandhas.”
•nhơn vào núi lượm được một nhánh cây hình giống con rắn, đề trên lưng một câu: “Vốn nhiên chẳng nhờ bào gọt,” gởi tặng sư. Sư nhận, nói: “Ngươi bổn sắc ở núi, vẫn không vết dao búa.”—Xue-Feng came to Mount Kui. While living there he found an unusual stick shaped like a snake. On the back of it he wrote: “This is natural and was not carved.” Xue-Feng gave the stick to T’a-An, who said: “Inhabitants of this mountain have no ax with which to carve it.”
• Có người hỏi sư: “Phật ở chỗ nào?” Sư đáp: “Chẳng lìa tâm.” Vị Tăng lại hỏi: “Người trên hai ngọn có được cái gì?” Sư đáp: “Pháp không có chỗ được, dù có chỗ được, được vốn không được.”—A monk asked: “Where is Buddha?” T’a-An said: “Not apart from mind.” The monk said: “Then what were the attainments of the ancestors on Twin peaks?” T’a-An said: “In the Dharma there is nothing attained. If there is anything to be attained, it is that nothing is attained.”
• Năm 883, sư
Zen master Shen-Tsan
Trung Hoa—Chinese Zen master—Thần Tán là một trong những nổi bậc của Bách Trượng. Ngài lúc tuổi còn nhỏ. Sau khi với Trượng , ngài còn chưa thấu đạo (nhưng rất và không muốn khuyên của , vì nghĩ rằng làm sao hơn thầy được). Vì thế ngài quê bổn sư. Một hôm bổn sư đang ngồi xem kinh bên khung cửa, vì trời lạnh nên ông lấy giấy dán kín cửa lại. Thần Tán đi ngang thấy một con ong cứ bay đập vào tờ giấy để tìm lối ra, nhưng chui ra không được. Thần Tán đứng ngoài cửa sổ ngâm một :
“Không môn bất khẳng xuất
Đầu song dã thái si
Bách niên táng
Hà đầu thì?”
( chẳng chịu ra
Lại vào song cửa
Trăm năm vào tờ giấy cũ ấy
Cũng không có ngày nào ra được?)
Zen master Shen-Tsan was one of the outstanding of Zen master Bai-Zhang. He left home to become a monk at the young age. After attaining enlightenment, he bid farewell to Master Bai-Zhang and returned to his home town hoping to help his former teacher (who was too proud to take advice from his student, as he thought disciples would never surpass their teacher) get awakened. One day, his old teacher was reading the sutra by the window. Because it was too cold outside, he sealed the window with paper. This incidentally entrapped a bee inside the room. When Shen-Tsan passed by the abbot’s room and notice the bee banging itself against the taped window, trying to find its way out, he composed the following verses:
“The gateless gate is there,
Why don’t you get out, how stupid of you!
Even though you poke your nose into
The old paper for hundreds of years,
When can you expect to set free?”
Zen Master (?-826)
Sư là một trong những
Tổ tổ truyền nhau từ đời nầy sang đời khác. Đến Tổ từ sang Trung Hoa cho Tổ , rồi Tổ truyền cho , truyền cho , ổ truyền cho , rồi , Tổ , , Bách Trượng. Trượng đã cho ta. Nay ông phải vì mà cho nối tiếp.” Sư năm 826 sau Tây Lịch—He was one of the most outstanding Chinese monks; however, he was famous in Vietnam in the end of the eightth century. He was the founder of the Zen Sect in Vietnam. Before going to Vietnam, someone recommended him to go to see Ma-Tsu; however, when he arrived at Ma-Tsu’s Temple, Ma-Tsu already passed away. He came to see Pai-Chang and insisted to be his disciple.
Sometime later, he moved to stay at Hòa An temple in Kuang-Chou. In 820, he came to Vietnam and stayed at Kien So Temple. There he sat in meditation with face to a wall for several years, but nobody knew his practice except , the abbot of Temple. respected and honored him to be his master. Before passing away, he called to his side and advised: “For the sake of a great cause, the Buddha appeared, for the changing beings from illusion into enlightenment. Before entering into Nirvana, he transmitted the right Dharma eye treasury (something that contains and preserves the right experience of reality) to one of his great disciples, Maha-Kasyapa. Patriarchs continued to transmit generation after generation. When Patriarch Bodhidharma came to China from India, he transmitted the Mind-seal to Hui-K’o, from Hui-K’o to Seng-Ts’an, from Seng-Ts’an to T’ao-Hsin, from T’ao-Hsin to Hung-Jung, from Hung-Jung to Hui-Neng, from Hui-Neng to Nan-Yueh-Huai-Jang, from Nan-Yueh-Huai-Jang to Ma-Tsu, from Ma-Tsu to Pai-Chang. I received the mind-seal from Pai-Chang, and now I just want to transmit it to you. Please keep expanding the Correct Dharma to the next generation.” Zen Master passed away in 826 AD.
là và người Pháp của . Ông là một và quan trọng vào bậc nhà Đường. “Không” của ông là một trong tất cả mọi . Người ta nói rằng đạt lúc 18 tuổi và lúc 54 tuổi. Đến năm 58 tuổi ông đã đi khắp , ở lại với nhiều sư xuất sắc và “pháp chiến” với họ năm 80 tuổi, ông mới mở một ngôi chùa và bắt đầu dạy chúng. Ông dạy khi chết lúc 120 tuổi. có 13 người Pháp, nhưng vì có ít người bằng được ông về chiều sâu kinh nghịm, nên chỉ vài sau là dòng Thiền của ông bị tàn lụi. có một lối dạy học trò rất , mà người ta gọi là “Thiền trên miệng và trên môi .” Giọng trầm trầm, gần như là thì thào. Ông thường đưa ra những câu ngắn và , nhưng những lời ông nói có một lớn.
Người ta nói những lời ấy có thể chọc thủng những và tình cảm của học trò như một mũi gươm nhọn. được nhắc tới trong những 1, 7, 11, 14, 19, 31, và 37 trong ; cũng như những 2, 9, 30, 41, 45, 52, 57, 58, 59, 64, 80, và 96 trong Bích Nham Lục—Chao-Chou T’sung-Shen was a student and dharma successor of Nan-Chuan P’u-Yuan. He was a renowned and most important master of the T’ang dynasty. His “Sunnyata” is the bestknown of all koans. Chao-Chou is said to have attained “Beholding the Buddha-nature” at the age of eighteen and complete awakening at fifty-four. From fifty-four to eighty he made pilgrimages about China, staying with prominent masters and engaging in “Dharma dueling” with them. Not until he was eighty did he formally open a monastery and begin to teach.
He then continued to instruct students until his death, at one hundred and twenty. Chao-Chou had thirteen dharma successors, but since there were few who equaled or surpassed him in profundity of experience, his lineage died out after a few generations. Chao-Chou had a very special way of instructing his disciples that people called “Chao-Chou’s lip and mouth Ch’an.” In a soft voice, often almost whispering, he answered his students’ questions with short, simple pronouncements. His words were, however, very powerful; it is said they were able to cut through the deluded feeling and thinking of his disciples like a sharp sword. His name appears in examples 1, 7, 11, 14, 19, 31 and 37 of the Wu-Men-Kuan; and in examples 2, 9, 30, 41, 45, 52, 57, 58, 64, 80, and 96 of the Pi-Yen-Lu.
• Trong cuộc gặp gỡ đầu tiên với, đang nằm nghỉ mà vẫn hỏi: “Vừa rời chỗ nào?” thưa: “Vừa rời Đoan Tượng.” hỏi: “Thấy Đoan Tượng chăng?” thưa: “Chẳng thấy Đoan Tượng, chỉ thấy nằm.” hỏi tiếp: “Ngươi là có thầy hay không?” thưa: “Có Thầy.” lại hỏi: “Thầy ở chỗ nào?” bèn nói: “Giữa rất lạnh, ngưỡng mong tôn thể được muôn phước.” khen ngợi liền nhận vào chúng—Upon their first meeting, Nan-Xiang, who was lying down and resting, asked Zhao-Chou: “Where have you come from?” Zhao-Chou said: “I’ve come from Rui-Xiang (Omen Figure). Nan-Xiang said: “Did you see the standing omen’s figure?” Zhao-Chou said: “No, but I’ve seen a reclining Tathagata.” Nan-Xiang got up and asked: “As a novice monk, do you have a teacher or not?” Zhao-Chou replied: “I have a teacher.” Nan-Xiang said: “Who is your teacher?” Zhou-Chou stepped in front of Nan-Xiang, bowed and said: “In the freezing winter-cold, a prostrate monk only asks for the master’s blessings.” Nan-Xiang approved Zhao-Chou’s answer and permitted him to enter the monk’s hall.
• Một ngày nọhỏi : “Thế nào là đạo?” đáp: “Tâm là đạo.” lại hỏi: “Lại có thể nhằm tiến đến chăng?” đáp: “Nghĩ nhằm tiến đến đã là sai rồi.” lại hỏi: “Nếu không nghĩ thì làm sao biết được là đạo?” nói: “Đạo chẳng thuộc biết, cũng chẳng thuộc chẳng biết; biết là vọng, chẳng biết là . Nếu thật đạt đạo thì chẳng nghi, rỗng rang đâu thể gắng nói .” Ngay câu nói nầy ngộ lý. Sau đó đi đến đàn tại Tung Nhạc , xong, sư với Nam Tuyền—One day, Zhao-Chou asked Nan-Xiang: “What is the Way?” Nan-Xiang said: “Everyday mind is the Way.” Zhao-Chou said: “Does it have a disposition?” Nan-Xiang said: “If it has the slightest intention, then it is crooked.” Zhao-Chou said: “When a person has no disposition, then how can he know that this is the Way?” Nan-Xiang said: “The Way is not subject to knowledge, nor is it subject to no-knowledge. Knowledge is delusive. No-knowledge is nihilistic. When the uncontrived way is really attained, it is like great emptiness, vast and expansive. So how could there be baneful right and wrong?” At these words Zhao-Chou was awakened. Thereafter Zhao-Chou traveled to Mount Song where he received ordination. He then returned to continue his practice under Nan-Xiang.
• Một ngày kháchỏi : “Như vậy những người có khi chết họ sẽ đi về đâu không?” đáp: “Đến nhà dưới núi mà làm con trâu đi.” bèn nói: “Cảm ơn lời Thầy chỉ giáo.” nói: “Đêm qua canh soi cửa.”—Another day Zhao-Chou asked Nan-Xiang: “Where do people with knowledge go when they die?” Nan-Xiang said: “They go to be bull water buffaloes down at the Tans’ and Yues’ houses at the base of the mountain.” Zhao-Chou said: “Thank you for your instruction.” Nan-Xiang said: “Last night during the third hour the moon reached the window.”
•đến gặp . thấy sư đến liền . Sư lấy một que củi đang cháy, chạy vào la to: “Cháy! Cháy!” mở cửa, nắm sư đứng lại bảo: “Nói! Nói!” bảo: “Cướp qua rồi mới trương cung.”—Zhao-Chou went to see Huang-Bo. When Huang-Bo saw him coming he closed the door to his room. Zhao-Chou picked up a piece of flaming firewood from the stove, and walking into the Dharma hall, he yelled: “Fire! Fire!” Huang-Bo threw open his door, and grabbing Zhao-Chou he said: “Speak! Speak!” Zhao-Chou said: “After the thief has run off you’ve drawn your bow.”
•khác đến gặp . Sư vừa đến nơi thì đã la lớn: “Mũi tên đến.” : “Xem tên!” nói: “Trật.” : “Trúng.”—Zhao also went to T’ian-Huang Tao-Wu’s place. Just when Zhao-Chou entered the hall, Tao-Wu yelled: “Here comes an arrow from Nan-Xiang.” Zhao-Chou said: “See the arrow!” Tao-Wu said: “It already passed.” Zhao-Chou said: “Bulls-eye!”
thì nhơ, ngã thì sạch, giống như con chó săn vật gì để ăn. ở chỗ nào? Ngàn muôn người thảy đều tìm Phật, mà trong đó muốn tìm một không có. Nếu cùng vua KHÔNG làm , chớ bảo tâm bệnh khó trị. Khi chưa có , trước đã có tánh nầy, khi , tánh này vẫn còn đó. Một phen được thấy Lão Tăng, sau lại chẳng phải người khác, chỉ là chủ nhơn nầy. Cái đó lại hướng ngoài tìm làm gì? Khi ấy chớ xoa đầu moi óc, nếu xoa đầu moi óc liền mất vậy—Zhao-Chou entered the hall and addressed the monks, saying: “A metal Buddha does not withstand the furnace. A wooden Buddha does not withstand the fire. A mud Buddha does not withstand water. The genuine Buddha sits within you. “Bodhi” and “Nirvana,” “True Thusness” and “Buddha-nature” these things are just clothes stuck to the body and they are known as “afflictions.” Where is the actual ground-truth revealed? “Big mind is unborn.
The myriad dharmas are flawless. Try sitting for twenty or thirty years, and if you still don’t understand then cut off my head! The empty flowers of delusion and dreams, disciples work so hard to grab them! When nothing deviates from mind, then the myriad dharmas are but one thusness. Since it can’t be attained from outside, what will you try to grasp? You’re like goats, haphazardly picking up just anything and keeping it in your mouth! I heard Yao-Shan said: “People ask me to reveal it, but when I teach, it is like something taken from a dog’s mouth. What I teach is like something taken from a dog’s mouth. Take what I say as dirty.
Don’t take what I say as clean. Don’t be like a hound always looking for something to eat.” Where is the Buddhadharma? Thousands of fellows are seeking Buddha, but if you go looking among them for a person of the Way you can’r find one. If you are going to be a disciple of Buddha then don’t let the mind’s disease be so hard to cure. This nature existed before the appearance of the world. If the world ends, this will not end. From the time I saw my true self, there hasn't’been anyone else. There's just the one in charge. So what is there to be sought elsewhere? At the moment you have this, don't’turn your head or shuffle your brains! If you turn your head or shuffle your brains it will be lost!"
• Một vị Tăng mới đến, nói: “Con mới đến xin thầy chỉ giáo.” hỏi: “Ngươi ăn chưa?” Vị Tăng đáp: “Dạ rồi!” nói: “Đi rửa chén bát đi.” Nghe xong những lời nầy Tăng liền . Thế ra cái ngộ thường tục biết chừng nào!—A new monk came to the monastery. He said to Zhao-Chou: “I’ve just arrived here. I asked the master to provide me instruction.” Zhao-Chou said: “Have you eaten?” The monk said: “Yes, I’ve eaten.” Zhao-Chou said: Go wash your bowl.” Upon hearing these words the monk was enlightened. This is enough to show what a commonplace thing enlightenment is!
•: “Đạo chẳng khó, chỉ hiềm , vừa có nói năng là , là . Lão Tăng chẳng ở trong , các ngươi lại tiếc giữ chăng?” Có vị Tăng đứng ra hỏi: “Đã chẳng ở trong thì tiếc giữ cái gì?” bảo: “Ta cũng chẳng biết.” Vị Tăng nói: “Hòa Thượng đã chẳng biết, vì sao chẳng ở trong minh bạch?” nói: “Hỏi thì được. xong lui ra.”—Zen master Zhao-Chou entered the hall to address the monks: “Attaining the Way is not difficult, just disdain choosing. As soon as words are present there is choosing, there is understanding. It’s not to be found in understanding. Is understanding the thing you uphold and sustain?” A monk asked: “Since it is not found in understanding, what is to be upheld and sustained?” Zhao-Chou said: “I don’t know.” The monk said: “Since the master doesn’t know what it is, how can you say it isn’t within understanding?” Zhao-Chou said: “Ask and you have an answer. The bow and withdraw.”
• Có vị Tăng hỏi: “Cây cókhông?” đáp: “Có.” Vị Tăng lại hỏi: “Như bao giờ nó thành Phật?” đáp: “Khi nào đại rơi xuống địa cầu.” Vị Tăng lại hỏi: “Khi nào thì rơi xuống địa cầu?” đáp: “Khi nào cái cây .”—A monk asked: “Does a tree in the garden have Buddha-nature?” Zhao-Chou said: “Yes.” The monk asked: “When will it become a Buddha?” Zhao-Chou said: “When the great void falls to earth.” The monk asked: “When will the great void fall to earth?” Zhao-Chou said: “When a tree become a Buddha.”
• Có một vị Tăng hỏi: “Thế nào là câu nói cùng tuyệt?” Thay cho lời đáp, chỉ nói: “Phải.” Vị Tăng không của chữ ‘phải,’ tưởng là sư chưa đáp, bèn hỏi lại. Sư hét to: “Bộ tôi điếc hay sao?”—A monk asked Chao-Chou: “What is the one ultimate word of truth?” Instead of giving any specific answer he made a simple response saying “Yes.” The monk who naturally failed to see any sense in this kind of response asked for a second time, and to this the master roared back: “I am not deaf!”
• Như trên
Chao-Chou had already experienced profound enlightenment at the age of 18; following that he trained himself for forty years under his master Nan-Chuan. After his master passed away, he set about wandering in order to deepen his experience further through “Zen” with other Ch’an masters. It is said that during this period he sought out as many as eighty of the dharma successors of Ma-Tsu-Tao-I (his grandfather in Ch’an). Finally, at the age of 80, he settled in a small Ch’an monastery in the town of Chao-Chou. There at last students gathered around him and he led them on the path of Ch’an until his death at the age of 120.
• Ngày mồng hai thánh mười một năm 897, sư
Ông sanh năm 807 sau Tây Lịch, là tổ thứ nhất của phái
He was the first Patriarch of the T’ao-Tung Sect and formulator of the Five Degrees. Tung-Shan came to see Hui-chao of Shu-Shan, and the latter asked: “You re already master of a monastery, and what do you want here?” Tung-Shan said: “I am distressed with a doubt and do not know what to do, hence my coming here.” The master called out: “O Liang-Chieh!” which was Tung-Shan’s real name, and Liang Chieh replied at once, “Yes, sir.” Hui-Chao asked: “What is that?” Chieh failed to answer, and Hui-Chao gave this judgment, “Fine Buddha no doubt, and what a pity he has no flames.” According to the Transmision of the Lamps, as he has no flames, his ignorance is not illuminating. When he becomes conscious of the fact, there is enlightenment. He died in 869 A.D.
: Năm cấp bậc do . Giống như 10 , đây là các mức độ khác nhau về sự trong nhà Thiền—Five degrees of Tung-Shan-Liang-Chieh—Like the Ten Osherding Verses, these are different levels or degrees of Zen realization formulated by Zen master Tung-Shan-Liang-Chieh:
1)Thiên: Ngôi vị thứ nhất về ngự trị, nhưng nó được như là chiều kích của ngã tuyệt đối—The first level in which realization of the world of phenomena is dominant, but it is perceived as a dimension of the absolute self.
2) Thiên Trung Chánh: Giai đoạn thứ nhì nầy hình tháiđến với giai đoạn trước một cách mãnh liệt và sự bị đẩy lùi vào phía sau—The second level or second stage the undifferentiated aspect comes strongly to the fore and diversity recedes into background.
3)Lai: Giai đoạn thứ ba là ngôi vị trong ấy không còn về thân hay tâm. Cả hai đã được xả bỏ hoàn toàn—The third grade is a level of realization wherein no awareness of body or mind remains; both “drop away” completely.
4) Thiên Trung Chí: Giai đoạn thứ tư, với ngôi vị nầy, tínhcủa mỗi sự vật được ở mức độ độc nhất. Bây giờ núi là núi, sông là sông; chứ không còn núi đẹp sông buồn nữa—The fourth grade is the singularity of each object is perceived at its highest degree of uniqueness. Now mountain is mountain, river is river; ther is no such a beautiful or loving mountain or a boring river.
5) Kiêm Trung Đáo: Ở vị thứ năm hay là mức cao nhất, sắc và không
Zen Master Shih-Shuang-Qing-Zhu
sanh năm 806 tại Tân Cam, Lô Lăng. Năm 13 tuổi sư theo , năm 23 tuổi sư túc giới, sau đó sư Tạng—Zen master Qing-Zhu was born in 806 in Xin-kan near ancient Lu-Ling. At 13 he left home to follow Zen master Shao-Long and was fully ordained at the age of 23. He then proceeded to study the Vinaya Pitaka.
• Một hôm sư ở trong liêu sàng gạo, Qui Sơn (
Once when he was preparing the rice, Kui-Shan said to him: “Don’t lose anything offered by our patrons.” Qing-Zhu said: “I’m not losing anything.” Kui-Shan reached down and picked up a single grain of rice which had fallen to the ground and said: “You said you haven’t lost anything, but what’s this?” Qing-Zhu didn’t answer. Kui-Shan said: “Don’t lightly regard this one grain, a hundred thousand grains are born from this one.” Qing-Zhu said: “A hundred thousand grains are born from this one, but from what place is this one grain born?” Kui-Shan laughed, “Ha, ha,” and went back to his room. That evening Kui-Shan entered the hall and addressed the monks, saying: “Everyone! There’s an insect in the rice. You should all go and see it.”
• Sư đến, hỏi: “Thế nào chạm mắt là Bồ Đề?” gọi một vị và vị ấy đáp lời. bèn bảo vị : “Thêm nước sạch ( ) vào bình.” Sau một hồi , lại hỏi sư: “Ông vừa hỏi cái gì?” Sư thuật lại câu hỏi trước. đi. Sư nhơn đấy tỉnh giác—When Qing-Zhu met T’ao-Wu, he said: “What is the transcendent wisdom that mees the eye?” T’ao-Wu called to an attendant and the attendant respond. T’ao-Wu said to him: “Add some clean water to the pitcher.” After a long pause, T’ao-Wu said to Qing-Zhu: “What did you just come and ask me?” Qing-Zhu repeated his previous question when T’ao-Wu got up and left the room. Qing-Zhu then had a great realization.
•bảo chúng: “Ta đau gần muốn chết, bởi trong tâm có một vật để lâu thành bệnh, người nào hãy vì ta mà dẹp nó đi?” Sư thưa: “Tâm vật đều , lại thêm bệnh.” khen: “Lành thay! Lành thay!”—When T’ao-Wu was about to die, he said: “There’s something in my mind. An old trouble. Who can get rid of it for me?” Qing-Zhu said: “All things in your mind are unreal. Get rid of good and bad?” T’ao-Wu said: “Worthy! Worthy!”
Làm Tăng mới được hai tuổi hạ, sư bèn ẩn trong dân gian, vào xóm thợ gốm vùng Lưu Dương, Trường Sa, sáng sớm dạo đi, đến chiều
T’ung-Shan-Liang-Zhie sent a monk to find him. Qing-Zhu asked the monk: “What does T’ung-Shan say to provide instruction to his disciples?” The monk said: “At the end of the summer practice period he said to the monks, ‘the fall has begun and the summer has ended. If you brethren go traveling, you must go to the place where there isn’t a blade of grass for ten thousand miles.’” “After a long pause, T’ung-Shan said: ‘How can one go to a place where a single blade of grass isn’t found for ten thousand miles?’” Qing-Zhu asked the monk: “Did anyone respond or not?” The monk said: “No.” Qing-Zhu said: “Why didn’t someone say, ‘Going out the door, there’s the grass.’” The monk went back and relayed what Qing-Zhu said to T’ung-Shan. T’ung-Shan said: “This is the talk of wonderful knowledge appropriate for an abbot of fifteen hundred people.”
Zen Master T’a-T’ong
sanh năm 819. Thuở nhỏ sư theo Mãn Bảo Đường, sau đó ít lâu sư và bắt đầu theo làm của Thúy Vi Vô Học—Zen master T’a-T’ong was born in 819. As a young man he left home to study under a Zen master named Man-Bao-T’ang. Sometime later he read the Flower Garland Sutra and proceeded to study under Shui-Wei-Wu-Xue.
• Một hôm
They met each other on the road. Zhao-Chou asked him: “Aren’t you the host of Mount T’ou-Tzi?” T’ou-Tzi said (like a beggar): “Tea, salt, a coin, please help me!” Zhao-Chou then proceeded to T’ou-Tzi’s hut on the mountain and sat down inside. Later T’ou-Tzi returned to the hut carrying a jug of oil. Zhao-Chou said: “Long have I heard of T’ou-Tzi, but since coming here all I’ve seen is an old-timer selling oil.” T’ou-Tzi said: “You’ve only seen an old-timer seling oil. But you haven’t recognized T’ou-Tzi.” Zhao-Chou said: “What is T’ou-Tzi?” T’ou-Tzi lifted up the jug of oil and yelled: “Oil! Oil!”
•hỏi: “Khi ở trong chết được sống là thế nào?” Sư đáp: “Chẳng cho đi đêm, đợi đến sáng sẽ đến.” nói: “Ta sớm là trắng, y lại là đen.”—Zhao-Chou asked: “What do you say about the one who undergoes the great death, and thus attains life?” T’ou-Tzi said: “He can’t make the journey at night. He must arrive in the daylight.” Zhao-Chou said: “I’ve long committed thievery, but you’ve worse than me.”
• Một hôm Sư
But this old monk’s energy is failing and my lips and tongue are blundering. I don’t have any idle talk to give you. If you ask me then I will answer you directly. But there is no mystery that can be compared to you, yourself. I won’t teach you some method to collect wisdom. I will never say that above or below there’s a Buddha, a Dharma, something ordinary or something sacred, or that you will find it by sitting with your legs crossed. You all manifest a thousand things. It is the understandings that arise from your own life that you must carry into the future, reaping what you sow. I have nothing to give you here, neither overtly nor by inference. I can only speak to all of you in this manner. If you have doubts then question me.”
• Sư ở núihơn ba mươi năm, những qua lại thường đầy cả thất. Sư dùng tùy hỏi liền đáp, ứng cơ lời lẽ rất nhiều—Zen master T’a-T’ong resided on Mount T’ou-Tzi for more than thirty years, provoking and advancing Dharma in all directions. Those who came for his instruction often overflowed the hall. The master spoke in an unimposing manner, answering all questions, aiding each person’s development, and expressing great meaning with few words.
• Đời Đường niên hiệu(881), giặc cướp nổi dậy, dân chúng ly tán. , có bọn cuồng đồ cầm đao lên núi hỏi sư: “Ở đây làm gì?” Sư , bọn chúng nghe đều bái phục, cởi rồi giải tán—The Huang-Chao bandit uprising broke out during the Zhong-He era (around the year 881). At that time every place experienced disaster and chaos. Once, a crazed bandit brandished a knife at the master and said: “What are you doing living here?” T’ou-Tzi calmly continued to espouse Dharma. When T’ou-Tzi finished speaking the bandit bowed and took off their own clothes to leave as an offering.
Ngày sáu tháng tư năm 914, sư hơi nhuốm bệnh.
Zen Master Shan-Hui
Thiẹân Hội sanh năm 805, sư lúc 9 tuổi và túc giới năm 20 tuổi. Sau khi đề nghị sư đến gặp Thuyền Tử, sư đến Hoa Đình làm Thuyền Tử. Sư được là của Hoa Đình Thuyền Tử—Zen master Shan-Hui was born in 805. He left home at the age of nine and received full ordain at the age of twenty. Following Zen Master T’ao-Wu Yuan-Zhi’s recommendation, he came to Hua-Ting to become Chuan-Tzi’s disciple. He was recognized as Chuan-Tzi’s Dharma heir.
• Một hôm sưdạy chúng: “Từ có Tổ đến đây người ta , nối nhau đều lấy lời Phật, Tổ làm dạy người. Như thế, kẻ cuồng hay người rồi còn gì. Kia chỉ bày tỏ cho các ngươi ‘Không pháp vốn là đạo, đạo không một pháp; không Phật có thể thành, không đạo có thể đắc, có thể xả.’ Cho nên nói ‘Trước mắt , ý tại .’ (mục tiền , ý tại mục tiền). Kia chẳng phải là pháp . Nếu nhằm bên Phật, Tổ mà học, người nầy chưa có mắt , vẫn là thức tánh mênh mang không có phần . Ngàn muôn dậm tìm , cốt có cái thấy chơn chánh hằng , định lấy cái xem là thật có hay thật không? Nếu có người định được lẽ này, hứa nhận ông sẽ . Người ngay liền rõ đạo; kẻ bậc trung, bậc hạ chạy như sóng bủa. Sao chẳng nhằm trong mà an định? Sẽ nhận lấy chỗ nào? Lại nghi Phật nghi Tổ thế cái cho ông được sao? Người trí sẽ cười ông. Nghe kệ đây:
Duy hướng Phật biên cầu.
Mục tiền mê chánh lý
Bác hỏa mích phù âu.”
(Nhọc gìn pháp
Chỉ nhằm bên Phật cầu.
lầm lý chánh
Trong lửa bọt có đâu).
One day Shan-Hui entered the hall and addressed the monks, saying: “Since the time of the ancestors there have been those who misunderstand what has been passed down. Right up to now they have used the words of the Buddhas and ancestors and made them models for study. If people do this then they’ll go crazy and have no wisdom at all. The Buddhas and ancestors have instructed you that the dharmaless root is the Way. The way is without even a single Dharma. There is no Buddha that you can become. There is no way that can be attained. Nor is there any Dharma that can be grasped or let go of. Therefore, the ancients said: ‘Before the eyes there is no Dharma, but the meaning is before the eyes.’ Those who want to study the Buddhas and ancestors heven’t opened their eyes. Why do they want to submit to something else and not attain their own freedom? Basically it’s because they are confused about life and death.
They realize they don’t have a bit of freedom, so they go thousands of miles to seek our some great teacher. Those people must attain the true eye, not spend their time grasping and discarding spurious views. But are there any here among you of definite attainment who can really hold forth about existence and nonexistence? If there’s someone who’s definite about this then I invite you to speak out.’ ‘When persons of high ability hear these words they are clear about what’s being said. Those of middle or low ability continue rushing around. Why do’t you just directly face life and death? Don’t tell me you still want the Buddhas and ancestors to live and die in your place! People who understand will laugh at you. If you still don’t get it, then listen to this verse:
“Belaboring life and death,
Just seeking Buddha’s quarter.
Confused about the truth before your eyes,
Poking a fire to find a cool spot.”
• Vị Tăng hỏi: “Từ trước lập ý Tổ và ý kinh, vì sao độ nầynói không?” Sư đáp: “Ba năm chẳng ăn cơm, không người đói, tại sao con chẳng ngộ?” Chỉ vì ngộ mê đuổi . Sư bèn nói kệ:
“Minh minh vô ngộ pháp
Ngộ pháp nhơn
Trường thơ lưỡng cước thùy
Vô ngụy diệt vô chơn.”
Pháp ngộ đuổi người mê
Duỗi thẳng hai chân ngủ
Không ngụy cũng không chơn).
• A monk asked: “There has always been meaning attributed to the teaching of the Buddhas and ancestors. Why does the master say there isn’t any?” Shan-Hui said: “Don’t eat for three years and you won’t see anyone hungry.” The monk said: “If no one is hungry, why can’t I gain awakening?” Shan-Hui said: “Because awakening has confused you.” Shan-Hui then recited this verse to make his point:
“Clear and luminous, no Dharma of awakening,
Awakening confuses people.
In paradise with two feet and eyes,
Nothing false, and nothing true.”
Vào ngày 7 tháng 11 năm 881, sư gọi
là của . Ông là một trong những Trung Hoa vào đời nhà Đường. Không ai biết ông sanh vào năm nào. Một Thiền đã được đặt dưới tên ông. Ông vì các và lối nói chuyện với . Ngài không tán thành lối nói pháp , của các thiếu nhiệt huyết. Có lẽ do sư phép Thiền trực chỉ ấy từ , trước kia đánh sư ba lần khi ba lần sư đến về của . được coi như là người đầu tiên tiếng hét, nhưng trước đó đã có là vị (see ) đã mở một kỷ nguyên mới cho Thiền sử, đã hét to khi Bách Trượng đến tái , tiếng hét ấy chát chúa đến nỗi Bách Trượng phải bị điếc tai đến ba ngày. Nhưng chính do mà tiếng hét được và có nhất, và sau nầy một ngón tuyệt kỹ của .
Thật sự, về sau nầy các của ngài quá về tiếng hét đến nỗi ngài phải thốt ra: “Tôi nghe quí ông toàn học hét. Thử hỏi quí ông mái tây có người ra, mái đông có người ra, cả hai người cùng hét. Các ông có được tiếng hét nào là khách, còn tiếng hét nào là chủ không? Nếu các ông không được, từ đây cấm học tiếng hét của lão Tăng.” —Lin-Chi was a disciple of Huang-Po. He was one of the famed chinese Zen masters during the T’ang dynasty. His year of birth is unknown. In China a special Zen sect was named after him “Lin-Chi” of which doctrine was based on his teachings. He was famous for his vivid speech and forceful pedagogical methods, as well as direct treatment of his disciples. He never liked those roundabout dealings which generally characterized the methods of a lukewarm master. He must have got this directness from his own master Huang-Po, by whom he was struck three times for asking the fundamental principle of Buddhism.
Lin-Chi is regarded as the author of “Kwats!” even though Ma-Tsu was an epoch-maker in the history of Zen, uttered “Kwats!” to his disciple, Pai-Chang, when the latter came up to the master for a second time to be instructed in Zen. This “Kwats!” is said to have deafened Pai-Chang’s ear for three days. But it was principally due to Lin-Chi that this particular cry was most effectively and systematically made use of and later came to be one of the special features of the Lin-Chi school in distinction to the other schools. In fact, the cry came to be so abused by his followers that he had to make the following remark: “You are so given up to learning my cry, but I want to ask you this: ‘Suppose one man comes out from the eastern hall and another from the western hall, and suppose both give out the cry simultaneously; and yet I say to you that subject and predicate are clearly discernible in this. But how will you discern them?’ If you are unable to discern them, you are forbidden hereafter to imitate my cry.”
• Trước nhất sư đến hội
Sư đến bạch : “Nhờ bi của thầy dạy tôi đến thưa hỏi , ba phen hỏi bị ba lần đánh, tôi tự buồn chướng duyên không được thâm chỉ. Nay xin từ giã ra đi. lại bảo: “Khi thầy đi nên đến giã từ rồi sẽ đi.” Sư xong phòng. đến thất trước, thưa: “Người đến thưa hỏi ấy, thật là đúng pháp, khi người ấy đến từ giã, xin tiếp y, về sau đục đẽo sẽ thành một gốc che mát trong .” Sư đến từ giã. bảo: “Chẳng nên đi chỗ nào khác, ngươi đến Cao An chỗ , ông ấy sẽ vì ngươi .”—From the beginning of his residence at Huang-Bo, Lin-Chi’s performance of his duties was examplary. At that time, Mu-Chou T’ao-Ming served as head monk. Mu-Chou asked Lin-Chi: “How long have you been practicing here?” Lin-Chi said: “Three years.”
Mu-Chou said: “Have you gone for an interview with the master or not?” Lin-Chi said: “I haven’t done so. I don’ know what to ask him.” Mu-Chou said: “Why not ask him, ‘What is the essential meaning of Buddhism?’” So Lin-Chi went to see Huang-Bo, but before he could finish his question Huang-Bo struck him. Lin-Chi went out, and Mu-Chou asked him: “What happened when you asked him?” Lin-Chi said: “Before I could get the words out he hit me. I don’t understand.” Mu-Chou said: “Go ask him again.” So Lin-Chi asked Huang-Bo again, and Huang-Bo once again hit him. Lin-Chi asked a third time, and Huang-Bo hit him again. Lin-Chi revealed this to Mu-Chou, saying: “Before you urge me to ask about the Dharma, but all I got was a beating. Because of evil karmic hindrances. I’m not able to comprehend the essential mystery.
So, today I’m going to leave here.” Mu-Chou said: “If you’re going to leave, you must say good-bye to the master.” Lin-Chi bowed and went off. Mu-Chou then went to Huang-Bo and said: “That monk who asked you the questions—although he’s young he’s very extraordinary. If he come to say good-bye to you, please give him appropriate instruction. Later he’ll become a great tree under which everyone on earth will find refreshing shade.” The next day when Lin-Chi came to say good-bye to Huang-Bo, Huang-Bo said: “You don’t need to go somewhere else. Just go over to the Kao’ Monastery and practice with T’a-Wu. He’ll explain to you.”
• Sư đến chỗ
—When Lin-Chi reached T’a-Wu, T’a-Wu said: “Where have you come from?” Lin-Chi said: “From Huang-Bo.” T’a-Wu said: “What did Huang-Bo say?” Lin-Chi said: “Three times I asked him about the essential doctrine and three times I got hit. I don’t know if I made some error or not.” T’a-Wu said: “Huang-Bo has old grandmotherly affection and endures all the difficulty for your sake—and here you are asking whether you’ve made some error or not!” Upon hearing these words Lin-Chi was awakened. Lin-Chi then said: “Actually, Huang-Bo’s Dharma is not so great.” T’a-Wu grabbed him and said: “Why you little bed-wetter! You just came and said: you don’t understand. But now you say there’s not so much to Huang-Bo’s teaching. What do you see? Speak! Speak!” Lin-Chi then hit T’a-Wu on his side three times. T’a-Wu let go of him, saying: “Your teacher is Huang-Bo. I’ve got nothing to do with it.” Lin-Chi then left T’a-Wu and returned to Huang-Bo.
—Huang-Bo saw him and said: “This fellow who’s coming and going. How can he ever stop?” Lin-Chi said: “Only through grandmotherly concern.” Lin-Chi then bowed and stood in front of Huang-Bo. Huang-Bo said: “Who has gone and returned?” Lin-Chi said: “Yesterday I received the master’s compassionate instruction. Today I went and practiced at T’a-Wu’s.” Huang-Bo said: “What did T’a-Wu say?” Lin-Chi then recounted his meeting with T’a-Wu. Huang-Bo said: “That old fellow T’a-Wu talks too much! Next time I see him I’ll give him a painfuls whip!” Lin-Chi said: “Why wait until later, here’s a swat right now!” Lin-Chi then hit Huang-Bo. Huang-Bo yelled: “This crazy fellow has come here and grabbed the tiger's whiskers!" Lin-Chi shouted. Huang-Bo then yelled to his attendant: “Take this crazy man to the practice hall!”
• Một hôm sư ngồi trước trong
—One day, Lin-Chi was sleeping in the monk’s hall. Huang-Bo came in and, seeing Lin-Chi lying there, struck the floor with his staff. Lin-Chi woke up and lifted his head. Seeing Huang-Bo standing there, he then put his head down and went back to sleep. Huang-Bo struck the floor again and walked to the upper section of the hall. Huang-Bo saw the head monk, who was sitting in meditation. Huang-Bo said: “There’s someone down below who is sitting in meditation. What do you imagine you’re doing?” The head monk said: “What’s going on with this fellow ?”
• Một hôm sư
—One day, Lin-Chi entered the hall to preach, saying: “Over a mass of reddish flesh there sits a true man who has no title; he is all the time coming in and out from your sense-organs. If you have not yet testified to the fact, look, look!” A monk came forward and asked: “Who is this true man of no title?” Lin-Chi came right down from his straw chair and taking hold of the monk exclaimed: “Speak! Speak!” The monk remained irresolute, not knowing what to say, whereupon the master, letting him go, remarked, “What worthless stuff is this true man of no title!” Lin-Ch the went straight back to his room.
• Một hôm, Định
—One day, Venerable Ting asked Lin-Chi: “What is the ultimate principle of Buddhism?” He came right down from his seat, took hold of the monk, slapped him with his hand, and pushed him away. Venerable Ting stood stupified. A bystander monk suggested: “Why don’t you make a bow?” Obeying the order, Venerable Ting was about to bow, when he abruptly awoke to the truth of Zen.
• Vào năm 867 khi sắp mất,
When Lin-Chi wa about to die he sat upright and said: “After I’m gone, my Treasury of the True Dharma Eye cannot be destroyed.” Lin-Chi’s disciple, San-Sheng, said: “How could we dare destroy the Master’s Treasury of the True Dharma Eye?” Lin-Chi said: “In the future if someone ask about my teaching, what will you say to them?” San-Sheng shouted! Lin-Chi said: “Who would have thought that my Treasury of the true Dharma Eye would be destroyed by this blind ass!” Upon saying these words Lin-Chi passed away, sitting upright.
• Ông đã
—He was the founder of one of the most famous Chinese Ch’an, Lin-Chi School. At the time of the great persecution of Buddhists in China from 842 to 845, Lin-Chi founded the school named after him. The Lin-Chi school of Ch’an. During the next centuries, this was to be not only the most influential school of Ch’an, but also the most vital school of Buddhism in China. Lin-Chi brought the new element to Zen: the koan. The Lin-Chi School stresses the importance of “Sudden Enlightenment” and advocates unusual means of achieving it, such as shouts, slaps, and the uses of koans. The Lin-Chi uses collections of koans systematically in its temples and downplays the reading of sutras and veneration of Buddha images in favor of seeking the Buddha Nature directly through the use of koans and practical living.
•: Lin-Chi School—Một trong năm Thiền của được xiển dương bởi ngài , của Huệ Năng—One of the five sects of Zen Buddhism in China, which was propagated by Lin-Chi, a Dharma heir of the Sixth Zen Patriarch Hui-Neng—See .
•: Bốn thứ tiếng hét của Lâm Tế—Four kinds of Lin-Chi’s cry—Theo D.T. Suzuki trong Thiền Luận, Tập I, có bốn cách hét, tùy tiện mà dùng, gọi là ‘Tứ Hát.”—According to Zen master D.T. Suzuki in the Essays in Zen Buddhism, Book I, Lin-Chi distinguishes four kinds of "cry.”
1) Tiếng hét thứgươm báu vua : The first cry is like the sacred sword of Vajraraja.
2) Tiếng hét thứ nhì như bốn vóvàng trụ bộ trên mặt đất: The second cry is like the golden-haired lion squatting on the ground.
3) Tiếng hét thứ ba như cần câu quơ bóng cỏ: The third cry is like the sounding rod or the grass used as a decoy.
4) Tiếng hét thứ tư không có
Zen Master Chen-Tzun-Tsu
sanh năm 780, của Hoàng Bá—Zen master T’ao-Ming was born in 780, was a disciple of Huang-Bo.
• Một hômbuổi chiều, chúng: “Các ngươi lại được chỗ bước vào chưa? Nếu chưa được chỗ bước vào, cần được chỗ bước vào, nếu đã được chỗ bước vào, về sau chớ cô phụ lão Tăng.” Có một vị Tăng thưa: “Con trọn chẳng dám cô phụ .” : “Ngươi trước đã cô phụ ta rồi.”—One day, Zen master T’ao-Ming said to his congregation: “Has any one of you gained an entrance? If you haven’t gained an entrance then that’s what you must do. If you gain an entrance then you won’t show ingratitude toward me.” A monk bowed and said: “I don’t dare have ingratitude toward you.” T’ao-Ming said: “You’ve already shown ingratitude.”
• Sư lại bảo: “Lão Tăngở đây chẳng từng thấy một người vô sự đi đến. Các ngươi sao chẳng lại gần?” Có một vị Tăng mới bước lại gần. : “Duy Na chẳng có ở đây, ngươi tự lãnh hai mươi gậy đi ra ngoài ba cửa.” Vị Tăng thưa: “Con lỗi ở chỗ nào?” : “Đã đeo còng lại mang gông.”—T’ao-Ming said: “Since I’ve been abbot, I’ve never seen someone without an issue come before me. Why can’t one of you come forward?” A monk then came forward. T’ao-Ming said: “The Temple director isn’t here. So take yourself out the front gate of the monastery and get twenty hits with the staff.” The monk said: “What did I do wrong?” T’ao-Ming said: “Your head’s already in a cangue and now you’ve put on manacles.”
• Một hôm sư đang đứng ngoài hành lang, có vị Tăng đến hỏi: “Phòngở chỗ nào?” Sư liền cởi giày, đè đầu vị Tăng ấy đập. Vị Tăng ấy chạy. Sư gọi: “Đại Đức! Tăng xoay đầu nhìn lại. Sư : “Đi bên này.”—One day T’ao-Ming was standing on a corridor path in the monastery. A monk came up to him and asked: “Where is abbot T’ao-Ming’s room?” T’ao-Ming took off a sandal and hit the monk on top of the head. The monk walked off. T’ao-Ming yelled: “Worthy!” The monk turned his head. T’ao-Ming pointed and said: “It’s that way!”
• Có vị sứ thần đến viếng. Sứ thần hỏi: “Ba cửa đều mở, từ cửa nào vào?” Sư gọi: “Thượng Thơ.” Sứ thần: “Dạ!” : “Từ cửa tín vào.” Sứ thần nhìn lên vách thấy tượng vẽ, hỏi: “Hai đối mặt luận việc gì?” Sư gõ cây cột nói: “Trong cái nào chẳng nói pháp?”—A ‘purple robed’ worthy came to visit T’ao-Ming. When he bowed, Ta’o-Ming grabbed the string that hung from his hat and said: “What is this called?” The monk said: “It’s called a facing heaven hat.” T’ao-Ming said: “Oh, in that case I won’t pull it off.” Ta’o-Ming laso said: “What doctrine do you expound?” The monk said: “The consciousness-only doctrine.”
• Sư lại hỏi: “Nói thế nào?”đáp: “Tam giới , .” Sư chỉ cánh cửa hỏi: “Cái ấy là gì?” đáp: “Sắc pháp.” : “Trước rèm ban , đối vua , tại sao không giữ năm giới? không đáp được—T’ao-Ming said: “What do you say of it?” The monk said: “The three worlds are only mind. The myriad dharmas are only consciousness.” T’ao-Ming pointed to the door screen and said: “What’s that?” The monk said: “A form dharma.” T’ao-Ming said: “In front of the screen you received the purple robe and expounded scripture to the emperor. Why can’t you uphold the five precepts?” The monk couldn’t answer.
Vào năm 877 , lúc sư sắp tịch gọi
Zen Master Yang-Shan-Hui-Ji
807-883 or 814-891
• Sư, một vị Tăng của , một trong những đại của . Ông là và là người Pháp của , và là thầy của . là một trong những chính vào thời của ông. Những rộng lớn của ông đã làm cho ông được mang “Tiểu .”—Yang-Shan-Hui-Ji, name of a noted monk in China. Yang-Shan was one of the great Ch’an masters of China, a disciple and Dharma successor of Kuei-Shan-Ling-Yu, and the master of Nan-T’a-Kuang-Jun. Yang-Shan was one of the most important Ch’an masters of his time; his great abilities brought him the nickname Little Sakyamuni.
—When Yang-Shan was studying Zen under Pai-Chang he had such a flowing tongue that to Pai-Chang’s one word he had ten words to answer. Pai-Chang said: “After me, there will be somebody else who will take care of you.” Yang-Shan later went to Wei-Shan. Wei-Shan asked: “I am told that while you were under Pai-Chang you had ten words to his one; is that so?” Yang-Shan said: “Yes, that is what they say.” Wei-Shan asked: “What do you have to state about the ultimate truth of Buddhism?” Yang-Shan was about to open his mouth when the master shouted. The question was repeated three times; the mouth vainly opened three times, the master shouted three times. Yang Shan finally broke down; drooping his head and with tears in his eyes, he said: “My late master prohesied that I should do better with someone else, and today I have this very one.”
• Một hôm, Qui Sơn thấy
—One day, Wei-Shan saw Yang-Sha sitting under a tree. Approaching, he touched him on the back with the staff he carried. Yang-Shan turned round, and Wei-Shan said: “O Chi (Yang-Shan’s name), can you say a word now, or not?” Yang Shan replied: “No, not a word, nor would I borrow one from others." Wei-Shan said: “O Chi, you understand.”
—Zen master Yang-Shan-Hui-Ji was born in 807 in Shao-Chou (now in Kuang-T’ong Province). At the age of fifteen, he wanted to leave home, but his parents refused him permission to become a monk. So, at the age of seventeen, he demonstrated his resolve to them by cutting off two of his fingers, vowing that he would seek the true Dharma to repay his filial obligations. He had visited several great Ch’an masters, among them Ma-Tsu-T’ao-I and Pai-Chang-Huai-Hai. He had made himself a name as an outstanding student of Ch’an. However, he realized profound enlightenment under Kuei-Shan. As his master’s dharma successor of equal accomplishment, he is considered the cofounder with his master of the Kuei-Yang school of Ch’an, which derives its name from the first character of the names of the two men.
• Sư đến
—Dan-Yuan Ying-Chen greatly esteemed Yang-Shan and said to him: “Previously the National Teacher Hui-Zhong received the transmission of a total of ninety-nine symbolic circles from the Sixth Patriarch. He in turn passed these to me, saying: ‘Thirty years after I’ve died, a novice monk will come from the South who will greatly revive this teaching. When that time comes, pass the teaching on to him and don’t let it end.’ Today I transmit them to you. You must uphold and peserve them.” Yang-Shan had his first enlightenment experience under Dan-Yuan-Ying-Chen.
• Nói xong Đam Nguyên trao bản ấy cho
—When he had finished speaking he passed the secret text to Yang-Shan. After receiving and examining the text, Yang-Shan burned it. One day Dan-Yuan said to Yang-Shan: “The symbols that I gave you are extremely rare, esoteric and precious. You must preserve them carefully.” Yang-Shan said: “After I examined them I burned them.” Dan-Yuan said: “This Dharma gate of ours can’t be understood by most people. Only the Buddha, the patriarchs, and all the holy ones can fully understand it. How could you burn it?” Yang-Shan said: After examining it, I fully comprehended its meaning. Then there was no use keeping the text.” Dan-Yuan said: “Even so, when transmitting this to disciples, people of future times won’t believe it.” Yang-Shan said: “If you like another copy that won’t be a problem. I’ll make another copy and give it to you. Then it won’t be lost.” Dan-Yuan said: “Please do.”
• Lúc còn
—When he was still a novice monk, Yang-Shan went to practice under Kui-Shan. Kui-Shan asked Yang-Shan: “As a novice monk do you have a host or not?” Yang-Shan said: “I have one.” Kui-Shan asked: “Who is it?” Yang-Shan walked from west to east and then stood there erect. Kui-Shan realized that Yang-Shan was extraordinary.
—Yang-Shan asked Kui-Shan: “What is the true abode of Buddha?” Kui-Shan said: “Think of unfathomable mystery and return your thoughts to the inexhaustible numinous light. When thoughts are exhausted you’ve arrived at the source, where true nature is revealed as eternally abiding . In that place there is no difference between affairs and principle, and the true Buddha is manifested. Upon hearing these words Yang-Shan experienced great enlightenment.
”—Zen master Yang-Shan entered the hall and addressed the monks, saying: “Each and every one of you, turn the light inward! Don’t try to remember what I’m saying! For a beginningless eon you have faced away from the light and been shrouded in darkness. The roots of delusion are deep. They’re difficult to cut off and uproot. So the Buddha established expedient means to grab your attention. These are like showing yellow leaves to a crying child, who imagines they’re gold and thus stops crying. You act as though you’re in a shop where someone sells a hundred goods made from gold and jade, but you’re trying to weigh each item. So you say that Shi-T’ou has a real gold shop? Well in my shop there’s a wide range of goods! If someone comes looking for mouse turds the I give him some. If someone comes looking for real gold then I give it to him.” A monk said: “I don’t want mouse turds. May I have the master’s real gold?” Yang-Shan said: “If you try to bite down on the head of a flying arrow you can try until the year of the ass but you won’t succeed!”
• Tăng không đáp được.
—The monk couldn’t answer. Yang-Shan said: “If you want to exchange something we can make a deal. If you don’t want to exchange anything then we can’t. If I trully speak of Zen, then there won’t be a single companion at your side. How can this be if there’re five or seven hundred in the assembly? If I talk about this and that, and you strain your neck trying to pick something up, then it will be like fooling a little child with an empty hand. There’s nothing authentic about it. Today I’m clarifying what is holy, which is not a matter of collecting and calming the mind. Instead you must practice to realize the true sea of self-nature. Of what use is there for ‘three clarifications’ and ‘six understandings’? What I speak of is the ultimate sacred matter. If right now you want to know mind and arrive at the root, then arrive at the root. Don’t worry about the tips of the branches. If you do this, then hereafter you will possess it yourself. But if you don’t attain the root, and just use your emotions to seek it, then you will never succeed. You’ll never see what Master Kui-Shan spoke of ‘the place where ideas of mundane and sacred are exhausted, where matter and principle are united and the true eternal body of the Tathagata is manifested.”
• Những lờichỉ dạy làm cho . Sư có làm :
Bình mục phục ngưỡng thị
Lưỡng khẩu nhất vô thiệt
Thử thị ngô tông chi.”
(Một hai hai ba con
lại ngước xem
Hai miệng một không lưỡi
Đây là ta).
Yang-Shan acted according to conditions to benefit beings and became a great example of the Zen school. One day when near death, Yang-Shan took a brush and wrote a verse for the monks to read:
I look across you all, and you gaze back,
Two mouths, one without a tongue,
This is my teaching.”
• Những “vấn đáp” giữa
—The “Questions and Answers” of Yang-Shan with his master Kuei-Shan and other Ch’an masters, recorded in the Yuan-Chou-Hui-Chi-Ch’an-Shih-Yu-Lu (Record of the Words of the Ch’an Master Yang-Shan Hui-Chi from Yuan-Chou), are considered outstanding examples of Ch’an mind. Yang-Shan appears in example 25 of the Wu-Men-Kuan, and examples 34 and 68 of the Pi-Yen-Lu.
• Khi sắpsư ngồi thẳng nói lời từ biệt với chúng, rồi đọc :
“ Niên mãn
Lão khứ thị kim nhật
Nhậm tánh tự phù trầm
Lưỡng thủ phan quật tất.”
(Năm đầy bảy mươi bảy
Chính là ngày tôi đi
Mặc tánh tự chìm nổi
Hai tay )
Nói xong sư
—When near death, he sat upright in a cross-legged position to say farewell to the congregation. He then recited a verse:
“Completing seventy-seven years,
Today it ends.
When the orb of the sun is just at noon
The two hands fold the legs.”
Upon saying these words, Yang-Shan calmly passed away, in the year 883, at the age of seventy-seven. Yang-Shan received posthunous name “Great Teacher Penetrating Wisdom.” The stupa was named “Wondrous Light.”
Zen Master Hsiang-Yan
, quê ở Thanh Châu (bây giờ thuộc tỉnh ), là của Trượng . Khi Bách Trượng qua đời, ngài sang với Tổ và của Qui Sơn ( cũng là một cao đệ của Trượng)
—Zen master Hsiang-Yan-Zhi-Xian was born in Qing-Chou (now in Shan-T’ong Province), was a disciple of Zen master Pai-Ch’ang-Huai-Hai. After the master’s death, he went to Kwei-Shan (who was also a senior disciple of Pai-Ch’ang.
• Một hôm, Qui Sơn bảo: “Ta nghe ở chỗ
—One day Kui-Shan said to Hsiang-Yan: “I’ve heard that you are an intelligent monk at Pai-Zhang, responding ten times for what you’re asked. Now I’m not asking you about what recorded or what can be learned from the scriptures! You must say something from the time before you were born and before you could distinguish objects. I want to record what you say.”
—Hsiang-Yan was confused and unable to answer. He sat in deep thought for some time and then mumbled a few words to explain his understanding. But Kwei-Shan couldn’t accept this. Hsiang-Yan said: “Then would the master please explain it?” Kwei-Shan said: What I might say would merely be my own understanding. How could it benefit your own view?” Hsiang-Yan returned to the monk’s hall and search through the books he had collected, but he couldn’t find a single phrase that could be used to answer Kwei-Shan’s question. Hsiang-Yan then sighed and said: “A picture of a cake can’t satisfy hunger.” He the burned all his books and said: “During this lifetime I won’t study the essential doctrine. I’ll just become a common mendicant monk, and I won’t apply my mind to this any more.”
• Thẳng đến Nam Dương chỗ, sư trụ tại đây. Một hôm nhơn cuốc cỏ trên núi, lượm hòn gạch ném trúng cây tre vang tiếng. Sư ngộ phá lên cười. Sư tắm gội nhắm hướng Qui Sơn , rằng: “Hòa Thượng ơn như , khi trước nếu vì con nói rồi thì làm gì có ngày nay.” Sư làm :
“Nhất kích vong
Cánh bất trì
Động dung dương cổ lộ
Bất đọa thiểu nhiên cơ.”
(Một tiếng quên
Đổi sắc bày đường xưa
Chẳng rơi cơ lặng yên).
“Xứ xứ vô túng tích
Thinh sắc ngoại
Chư nhơn đạt
Hàm ngôn thượng thượng cơ.”
(Nơi nơi không dấu vết
ngoài sắc thinh.
Những người bậc đạt đạo
Đều gọi thượng thượng cơ).
Hsiang-Yan tearfully left Kwei-Shan. He then went traveling and eventually resided at Nan-Yang, the site of the grave of National Teacher Nan-Yang Hui-Zhong. One day as Hsiang-Yan was scything grass, a small piece of the tile was knocked through the air and struck a stalk of bamboo. Upon hearing the sound of the tile hitting the bamboo, Hsiang-Yang instantly experienced vast enlightenment. Hsiang-Yan then bathed and lit incense. Bowing in the direction of Kwei-Shan, he said: “The master’s great compassion exceeds that of one’s parents! Back then if you had explained it, then how could this have come to pass?” Hsiang-Yan then wrote a verse:
“One strike and all knowledge is forgotten.
No more the mere pretense of practice.
Transformed to uphold the ancient path,
Not sunk in idle devices.”
“Far and wide, not a trace is left.
The great purpose lies beyond sound and form.
In every direction the realized Way,
Beyond all speech, the ultimate principle.”
• Qui Sơn, nói với : “Kẻ nầy đã .” thưa: “Đây là máy trước thuật được, đợi con đến nơi mới chắc.” đến thăm sư, bảo: “Hòa Thượng khen ngợi đã phát minh , thử nói tôi nghe?” Sư đọc bài tụng trước cho nghe. bảo: “Đó là do trước kia học tập ghi nhớ mà thành, nếu thật chánh ngộ hãy làm bài bài tụng khác. Sư nói bài khác:
“Khứ niên bần vị thị bần
Kim niên bần thủy
Khứ niên bần du hữu tarc chùy chi địa
Kim niên bần chùy dã vô.”
(Năm xưa nghèo chưa thật nghèo
Năm xưa nghèo mới thật nghèo
Năm xưa nghèo vẫn còn có đất cắm dùi
Năm nay nghèo dùi cũng không).
Hsiang-Yan then dispatched a monk to take the verse to Kwei-Shan and recite it. Upon hearing it, Kui-Shan said to Yang-Shan: “This disciple has penetrated!” Yang-Shan said: “This is a good representation of mind function. But wait and I’ll personally go and check out Hsiang-Yan’s realization.” Later Yang-Shan met with Hsiang-Yan and said: “Master Kwei-Shan has praised the great matter of your awakening. What do you say as evidence for it?” Hsiang-Yan then recited his previous verse. Yang-Shan said: “This verse could be composed from the things you’ve studied earlier. If you’ve had a genuine enlightenment, then say something else to prove it.” Hsiang-Yan then composed a verse that said:
“Last year’s poverty was not real poverty.
This year’s poverty is finally genuine poverty.
In last year’s poverty there was still ground where I could plant my hoe,
In this year’ poverty, not even the hoe remains.”
•bảo: “Sư đệ ngộ mà chưa ngộ .” Sư lại nói :
Thuần mục thị y
Nhược nhơn bất hội
Biệt hoán .”
(Ta có một cơ, chớp mắt
Nếu người chẳng hội, Riêng gọi ).
và về thưa lại Qui-Sơn: “Đáng mừng! Trí Nhàn đã ngộ .”—Yang-Shan said: “I grant that you have realized the Zen of the Tathagatas. But as for the Zen of the Ancestors, you haven’t seen it in your dreams.” Hsiang-Yan then composed another verse that said:
“I have a function
It’s seen in the twinkling of an eye.
If others don’t see it,
They still can’t call me a novice.”
When Yang-Shan heard this verse, he reported to Kwei-Shan: “It’s wonderful Hsiang-Yan has realized the Zen of the Ancestors!”
—Hsiang-Yen entered the hall and addressed the monks, saying: “Talking about this, you could compare it to a person who has climbed a tree and is grasping a branch, supported only by his teeth. His feet are hanging freely, as are his hands. Suddenly someone down on the ground yells out to him: ‘What is the meaning of the First Ancestor coming from the west?’ To not answer isn’t acceptable, but if he does so he’ll fall, and so lose his life. At this very moment what can he do?” At that time a monk named Tiger Head Zhao came forth from the congregation and addressed Hsiang-Yen, saying: "Leaving aside the question of the tree top, I ask the master to comment about before climbing the tree."”
Hsiang-Yen asked the monk: “Where are you form?” The monk replied: “From Kwei-Shan.” Hsiang-Yen asked: “There was once a monk who asked Wei-Shan concerning the Patriarch’s idea of coming to China, and how did Kwei-Shan reply?” The monk said: “Kwei Shan gave no answer but held up his baton.” Hsiang-Yen asked: “Now, how do you understand the meaning of Kwei-Shan’s action?” The monk replied: “The master’s idea is to elucidate mind along with matter, to reveal truth by means of an objective reality.” Hsiang-Yen said: “Your understanding is alright as far as it goes. But what is the use of hurrying so to theorize?” The monk now turned around and asked: “What will be your understanding about Kwei-Shan?” Hsiang-Yen held up his stick like the other master, then laughed: “Ha! Ha!"
“Tử thốt mẫu trác
Tủ mẫu câu vong
Ứng duyên bất thát.”
(Con kêu mẹ mổ, con biết xác mẹ
Con mẹ đều quên, hợp duyên chẳng lố).
• Sưdạy chúng những lời . Sư để lại hơn hai trăm bài tụng không theo qui luật như những vừa kể trên, các nơi rất thịnh hành—To all of his disciples, Hsiang-Yen provided his teachings in a clear and direct manner. He left more than two hundred verses such as these above mentioned ones that were composed to meet the situations he encountered. These unmetered verses were popular throughout the country.
“Năm trước nghèo chưa thật nghèo
Năm nay nghèo mới thật nghèo
Năm trước nghèo không đất cắm dùi
Năm nay nghèo dùi cũng không có nốt.”
“My last year’s poverty was not poverty enough,
My poverty this year is poverty indeed;
In my poverty last year there was room for a gimlet’s point,
But this year even the gimlet is gone.”
Một khác đã bình kệ nghèo của như sau—Later, there was a Zen master who commented on this verse of poverty by Hsiang-Yen in the following verse:
“Không dùi không đất chửa rằng nghèo
Còn nghèo tức chấp nghèo. nghèo là như thế ấy: bổn lai chưa thấy một ai nghèo.”
“Neither a gimlet’s point nor the room for it; but this is not yet real poverty:
As long as one is conscious of having nothing, there still remains the guardian of poverty.
I am lately poverty-stricken in all conscience,
For from the very beginning I do not see even the one that is poor.”
Dù thế nào đi nữa, thì chính cái nghèo đã giúp cho
Zen master Chong-Hsian-Hsueh-Tou
Trùng Hiển sanh năm 980 tại Toại Ninh (bây giờ thuộc tỉnh ), là của . Ngài là một bậc thầy lớn của dòng Thiền và hoằng hóa khoảng đầu đời nhà Tống. Sư nhờ . Sư cũng là . Khi bộ sách nầy ra mắt , tức thì được tán thưởng khắp nơi trong học đương thời
—Zen master Chong-Hsian-Hsueh-Tou was born in 980 in Sui-Ning (now in Si-Chuan Province), was a disciple of Kuang-Zuo-Zhi-Men. Hsueh-Tou was a great master of the Yun-Men Scol and flourished early in the Sung Dynasty. He was noted for his literary ability. He was also the author of Pi-Yen-Lu, and when this book was made public, it at once created universal applause in the literary circles of the time.
• Một hôm sư hỏi
—One day he asked Zhi-Men: “Before a single thought arises, can what is said be wrong?” Zhi-Men summoned Hsueh-Tou to come forward. Xue-Tou did so. Zhi-Men suddenly struck Hsueh-Tou in the mouth with his whisk. Xue-Tou began to speak but Zhi-Men hit him again. Hsueh-Tou suddenly experienced enlightenment.
—The head monk struck the gavel. A monk came forward to speak. Hsueh-Tou told him to stop and go back, and then said: “The Treasury of the True Dharma Eye of the Tathagatas is manifested before us today. In its illumination even a piece of tile is radiant. When it is obscured, even pure gold loses its luster. In my hand is the scepter of authority. It will now kill and give life. If you are an accomplished adept in the practice of our school, then come forward and gain authentication!”
• Có vị Tăng
—A monk came forward and said: “Far from the ancestral seat at Shui-Feng, now expounding at Hsueh-Tou, do you still not know if it’s one or if it’s two?” Hsueh-Tou said: “A horse cannot beat the wind for a thousand miles.” The monk said: “In that case, the clouds disperse and the clear moon is above the households.” Hsueh-Tou said: “A dragon-headed, snake-tailed fellow.”
Zen master Te-Shan-Hsuan-Chien
• Ông sanh vào năm 780 sau Tây Lịch, là một trong những
về sự tương phản chắc có và được bề mặt khi ngài gặp một địch thủ bất ngờ dưới một chủ quán bán trà. Lần đầu tiên với về Đầm Rồng, lớp vỏ chắc cứng của Đức Sơn bị đập nát , giải tỏa tất cả những ẩn nấp trong của ngài. Rồi khi ngọn đuốc bỗng dưng bị thổi tắt, tất cả những gì ngài đã từ chối trước khi có nầy bây giờ được vô . Đó là một của . Cái đã từng được nầy chẳng đáng bằng một cọng rơm
—He was born in 780 A.D., one of the great Zen master during the T’ang dysnasty. He is the subject of several koans. One of which tells how he attained enlightenment through his master blowing out of a candle. He died in 865 A.D. According to Zen Master D.T. Suzuki in the Essays in Zen Buddhism, Te-Shan was learned not only in the Vajracchedika, but in other departments of Buddhist philosophy such as the Abhidharma-soka and the Yogacara. But in the beginning he was decidedly against Zen, and the object of his coming out of Chou district was to annihilate it. This at any rate was the motive that directed the surface current of his consciousness; as to what was going on underneath he was altogether unaware of it.
The psychological law of contrariness was undoubtedly in force and was strengthened as against his superficial motive when he encountered a most unexpected opponent in the form of a tea-house keeper. His first talk with Ch’ung-Hsin concerning the Dragon’s Pool (Lung-T’an) completely crushed the hard crust of te-Shan’s mentality, releasing all the forces deeply hidden in his consciousness. When the candle was suddenly blown out, all that was negated prior to this incident unconditionally reasserted itself. A complete mental cataclysm took place. What had been regarded as most precious was now not worth a straw.
• Đức Sơn
thì muốn của dưới sự dẫn dắt của , còn của Đức Sơn là muốn được. Cả hai đều học , nhưng của họ ngược chiều nhau. đầu tiên của Đức Sơn là đi tới Long Đàm, nơi đây có một tên là . Trên đường lên núi, ngài dừng chân tại một quán trà và hỏi bà chủ quán có cái gì . “Điểm tâm” trong tiếng Hán vừa có nghĩa là ăn sáng, mà cũng có nghĩa là “chấm linh.” Thay vì mang cho du Tăng những đồ ăn theo lời , bà lại hỏi: “Thầy mang cái gì trên lưng vậy?” Đức Sơn đáp: “Những bản sớ giải của .” nói: “Thì ra thế! Thầy cho tôi hỏi một câu có được không? Nếu Thầy tôi xin đãi thầy một bữa ; nếu thầy , xin thầy hãy đi chỗ khác.” Đức Sơn .
Rồi bà chủ quán trà hỏi: “Trong tôi đọc thấy câu nầy ‘quá khứ , , . Vậy thầy muốn điểm cái tâm nào?” Câu hỏi bất ngờ từ một người đàn bà quê mùa có vẻ tầm thường ấy đã tài quảng kiến của Đức Sơn, vì tất cả của ngài về cùng những sớ giải của kinh chẳng gợi hứng cho ngài chút nào cả. Nhà đáng thương nầy phải ra đi mà chẳng được . Không những chỉ có thế, ngài còn phải cái là khuất phục các , bởi nếu chẳng làm gì được với một quê mùa thì mong gì khuất phục nổi một thực thụ
—Te-Shan, who is noted for his swinging a staff, was also a student of the Vajracchedika Sutra before he was converted to Zen. Different from his predecessor, Hui Neng, he was very learned in the teaching of the sutra and was extensively read in its commentaries, showing that his knowledge of the Prajnaparamita was more sytematic than was Hui-Neng'’. He heard of this Zen teaching in the south, according to which a man could be a Buddha by immediately taking hold of his inmost nature. This he thought could not be the Buddha’s own teaching, but the Evil One’s, and he decided to go down south. In this respect his mission again differed from that of Hui-Neng. Hui Neng wished to get into the spirit of the Vajracchedika under the guidance of the Fifth Patriarch, while Te-Shan’s idea was to destroy Zen if possible. They were both students of the Vajracchedika, but the sutra inspired them in a way diametrically opposite.
Te-Shan’s first objective was Lung-T’an where resided a Zen master called Ch’ung-Hsin. On his way to the mountain he stopped at a tea house where he asked the woman-keeper to give him some refreshments. In Chinese, “refreshment” not only means “tien-hsin” (breakfast), but literally, it means “to punctuate the mind.” Instead of setting out the request refreshments for the tired monk-traveller, the woman asked: "“What are you carrying on your back?” Te-Shan replied: “They are commentaries on the Vajracchedika.” The woman said: “The are indeed! May I ask you a question? If you can answer it to my satisfaction, you will have your refreshments free; but if you fail, you will have to go somewhere else.” To this Te-Shan agreed. The woman-keeper of the tea house then proposed the following: “I read in the Vajracchedika that the mind is obtainable neither in the past, nor in the present, nor in the future.
If so, which mind do you wish to punctuate?” This unexpected question from an apparently insignificant country-woman completely upset knapsackful scholarship of Te-Shan, for all his knowledge of the vajracchedika together with its various commentaries gave him no inspiration whatever. The poor scholar had to go without his breakfast. Not only this, he also had to abandon his bold enterprise to defeat the teachers of Zen; for when he was no match even for the keeper of a rodside tea house, how could he expect to defeat a professional Zen master?
• Ngay trước khi gặp gỡ, ngài đã phải xét lại sứ mệnh của mình. Đến khi gặp Long Đàm (cái đầm rồng) ngài nói: “Tôi nghe người ta về Long Đàm; bây giờ thấy ra thì chẳng có rồng cũng chẳng có đầm gì ở đây hết.” : “Quả thực ông đang ở giữa Long Đàm. Đức Sơn ở lại Long Đàm và theo học Thiền với nầy—Even before he saw Ch’ung-Hsin, master of Lung-T’an, he was certainly made to think more about his self-imposed mission. When Te-Shan saw Ch'ung-Hsin, he said: “I have heard people talked so much of Lung-T’an (dragon’s pool), yet as I see it, there is no dragon here, nor any pool."”Ch'’ng-Hsin quietly said: “You are indeed in the midst of Lung-T’an.” Te-Shan finally decided to stay at Lung-T’an and to study Zen under the guidance of its master.
• Một buổi chiều, ngài ngồi ở ngoài thất,
Ngài nói: “Đàm huyền luận diệu đâu cũng chẳng khác đặc một sợi lông vào giữa ; còn cùng số máy như đổ một giọt nước xuống vực sâu , chẳng thấm vào đâu. Học với chẳng học, mình ta biết.” Sáng hôm sau, Long Đàm . Ngài gọi lại nói: “Trong đây có một lão Tăng răng như rừng gươm, miệng tợ chậu máu, đánh một hèo chẳng ngoái cổ, lúc khác lại lên chót núi chớn chở dựng đạo của ta ở đấy.”
—One evening he was sitting ouside the room quietly and yet earnestly in search of the truth. Ch’ung-Hsin said: “Why do you not come in?” Te-Shan replied: “It is dark.” Whereupon Ch’ung-Hsin lighted a candle and handed to Te-Shan. When Te-Shan was about to take it, Ch’ung-Hsin blew it out. This suddenly opened his mind to the truth of Zen teaching. Te-Shan bowed respectfully.” The master asked: “What is the matter with you?” Te-Shan asserted: “After this, whatever propositions the Zen masters may make about Zen, I shall never again cherish a doubt about them.” The next morning Te-Shan took out all his commentaries on the Vajracchedika, once so valued and considered so indispensable that he had to carry them about with him wherever he went, committed them to the flames and turned them all into ashes.
He exclaimed: “However deep your knowledge of abstrue philosohy, it is like a piece of hair placed in the vastness of space; and however important your experience in worldly things, it is like a drop of water thrown into an unfathomable abyss.” The next morning, Zen master Lung-T’an entered the hall to preach the assembly, said: "Among you monks, there is a old monk, whose teeth are as sharp as swords, and mouth is as red as a basin of blood, a blow on his head will not make him turn back; later he will ascend the top of a sheer mountain to establish my sect.”
Về sau khi Đức Sơn đã
—Afterwards, when Te-Shan himself became a master, he used to say to an inquirer: “Whether you say ‘yes,’ you get thirty blows; whether you say ‘no,’ you get thirty blows just the same.” A monk asked him: “Who is the Buddha?” Te-Shan relpied: He is an old monk of the Western country.” The monk continued to ask: “What is enlightenment?” Te-Shan gave the questioner a blow, saying: “You get out of here; do not scatter dirt around us!” Another monk wished to know something about Zen, but Te-Shan roared: “I have nothing to give, begone!”
Zen master Yun-Ju-T’ao-Ying
là một và của . Năm sanh của Ngài không ai biết—Zen master Yun-Ju-T’ao-Ying was a noted disciple and Dharma heir of Zen Master T’ong-Shan-Liang-Jie. His year of birth was unknown.
• Một hôm
—One day T’ong-Shan asked Yun-Ju: “Where have you come from?” Yun-Ju said: “From Shui-Wei.” T’ong-Shan said: “What teaching does Shui-Wei convey to his disciples?” Yun-Ju said: “Once, when Shui-Wei was making offerings to the sacred images, I asked him: ‘If you make offerings to the arhats, will they come or not?’ Shui-Wei: ‘Aren’t you able to every day?’” T’ong-Shan said: “Did he really say that or not?” Yun-Ju said: “Yes.” T’ong-Shan said: “Don’t dimiss it when a great man appears!” Then T’ong-Shan asked Yun-Ju: “What is your name?” Yun-Ju said: “T’ao-Ying.” T’ong-Shan said: “Look up and then say it.” Yun-Ju said: “If I look up, then there’s nothing named ‘T’ao-Ying’” T’ong-Shan said: “You talk just like I did when I spoke with T’ao-Wu.”
•hỏi : “Thế nào là ý Tổ Sư?” đáp: “Sau này có nơi chốn ở yên, chợt có người đến hỏi như thế, phải đáp làm sao?”—Yun-Ju asked T’ong-Shan: “What was the First Ancestor’s intention?” T’ong-Sha answered: “Behind him as a reed hat.” Yun-Ju said: My fault.”
—Once, T’ong-Shan said to Yun-Ju: “I heard that a monk named ‘Great Thought’ was born in the Kingdom of Wie and became the king. Is this true or not?” “If his name was ‘Great Thought,’ then even the Buddha couldn’t do it.” T’ong-Shan agreed. One day T’ong-Shan asked: “Where are you going?” Yun-Ju said: “Tramping on the mountain.” T’ong-Shan said: “How can the mountain endure?” Yun-Ju said: “How can it not endure?” T’ong-Shan said: “If you go on like this, then you’ll eventually teach the whole country.” Yun-Ju said: “No, I won’t.” T’ong-Shan said: “If you go like this, then your disciples will gain a way of entrance.” Yun-Ju said: “No such way.” T’ong-Shan said: “No such way? I challenge you to show me.” Yun-Ju said: “If there’s such a path, then I’ll leave you immediately to go on it.” T’ong-Shan said: “In the future, a thousand or ten thousand people won’t be able to grab this disciple.”
• Sư theolội qua suối. hỏi: “Nước cạn sâu?” Sư thưa: “Chẳng ướt.” bảo: “Kẻ thô.” Sư thưa: “Thỉnh thầy nói.” nói: “Chẳng khô.”—Yun-Ju was crossing a river with T’ong-Shan. T’ong-Shan asked: “How deep is it?” Yun-Ju said: “It’s not wet.” T’ong-Shan said: “You rustic!” Yun-Ju said: “What would you say Master?” T’ong-Shan said: “Not dry.”
• Sư cất
—Yun-Ju built a cottage on nearby San-Feng peak. For ten days thereafter he didn’t return to the monk’ hall. T’ong-Shan asked him: “Why haven’ you come to meals lately?” Yun-Ju said: “Everyday a heavenly spirit brings me food.” T’ong-Shan said: “I say you’re a person. Why do you still have such an understanding? Come see me tonight!” That evening when Yun-Ju came to see T’ong-Shan, T’ong-Shan called out to him: “Hermit-Ying!” Yun-Ju answered: “Yes?” T’ong-Shan said: “Nothing of good and not thinking of evil, what is it?” Yun-Ju went back to his cottage and sat in Zen meditation. Because of this the god couldn’t find him, and after three days did not come again.”
năm 901—He died in 901 A.D.
Zen Master Kuang-Yong in Nan-Ta
Nam Tháp sanh năm 850 tại Phong Thành (bây giờ thuộc tỉnh ). Sư rất và lúc 13 tuổi. Ông là của , và là thầy của . Vào năm 19 tuổi sư túc giới—Zen Master Nan-Ta-Kuang-Yong was born in 850 in Feng-Cheng (now in Jiang-Xi Province). He was clever, mastering the Confucian classics at the age of thirteen. He was a disciple of Yang-Shan-Hui-Chi, and master of Pa-Chiao-Hui-Ch’ing. At ninetieen, he underwent ordination.
• Sư sang miền Bắc
—When Kuang-Yong return from a trip to visit Lin-Ji, Yang-Shan said: “Why have you come?” Kuang-Yong said: “To pay respects to the master.” Yang-Shan said: “Do you still see me?” Kuang-Yong said: “Yes.” Yang-Shan said: “When I observe the master, you don’t look like a Buddha.” Yang-Shan said: “If I don’t look like a Buddha, then what do I look like?” Kuang-Yong said: “If I must compare you to something, then how do you differ from a donkey?” Yang-Shan cried out excitedly: “He’s forgotten both ordinary and sacred! The passions are exhausted and the body is revealed. For twenty years I’ve tested them in this way and no one has gotten it. Now this disciple has done it!” Yang-Shan would always point Kuang-Yong and say to people: “This disciple is a living Buddha.”
• Có vị Tăng hỏi: “Văn Thù là thầy bảy
—A monk asked Zen master Kuang-Yong: “Manjushri was the teacher of seven Buddhas. Did Manjushri have a teacher or not?” Kuang-Yong said: “Manjushri was subject to conditions, and therefore had a teacher.” The monk said: “Who was manjushri’ teacher?” Kuang-Yong help up his whisk. The monk said: “Is that all?” Kuang-Yong put down the whisk and clasped his hands.
• Có vị Tăng hỏi: “Thế nào làmột câu?” Sư đáp: “Nước đến thành hồ.” Vị Tăng hỏi: ở tại chỗ nào?” Nói ra , cũng chẳng tại nơi khác—A monk asked: What is a sentence of mystic function?” Kuang-Yong said: “The water comes and the ditch fills up.” The monk asked: Where does the real Buddha reside?” Kuang-Yong said: “It doesn’t appear in words, nor anywhere else, either.”
• Không rõ sư
Zen Master Yan-T’ou
Toàn Khoát sanh năm 828 tại Tuyền Châu. Sư túc giới tại chùa tại . Sư là và là người Pháp của ngài . Ông là thầy của Đoan Nham . Tên ông được nhắc đến trong thứ 13 của và hai 51 và 66 của Bích Nham Lục—He was born in 828 in Quan-Chou. He received full precepts at Bao-Shou Temple in Chang-An. He was a student and Dharma successor of Te-Shan-Hsuan-Chien. Yan-T’ou appears in example 13 of the Wu-Men-Kuan and in examples 51 and 66 of the Pi-Yen-Lu.
•Toàn Khoát về cái nhìn và sắc xảo—Yan-T’ou was known for his clear and sharp mind.
• Sư dạo khắp các thiền uyển,cùng , Khâm Sơn Văn Thúy. Từ núi sang , đã , đến . Vừa vào cửa, sư đưa cao , thưa: “Hòa Thượng.” cầm toan giở lên. Sư thưa: “Chẳng ngại tay khéo.”—Yan-T’ou, Xue-Feng, and Qin-Shan went traveling to visit Lin-Ji, but they arrived just after Lin-Ji had died. They went to Mount Yang. Yan-T’ou entered the door, picked up a sitting cushion, and said to Zen master Yang-Shan: “Master.” Before Yang-Shan could raise his whisk into the air, Yan-T’ou said: “Don’t hinder an adept!”
• Đến tham yết Đức Sơn, sư cầmlên nhìn xem. Đức Sơn hỏi: “Lão Tăng có lỗi gì?” Sư thưa: “Lưỡng trùng .” Sư trở xuống nhà . Đức Sơn nói: “Cái ông thầy in tuồng người .”—Yan-T’ou went to study with Te-Shan. There, Yan-T’ou took a meditation cushion into the hall and stared at Te-Shan. Te-Shan shouted and said: “What are you doing?” Yan-T’ou shouted. Te-Shan said: “What is my error?” Yan-T’ou said: “Two types of koans.” Yan-T’ou then went out. Te-Shan said: “This fellow seems to be on a special pilgrimage.”
• Hôm sau lên thưa hỏi, Đức Sơn hỏi: “Xà Lê phải vị Tăng mới đến hôm qua chẳng?” Sư thưa: “Phải.” Đức Sơn bảo: “Ở đâu học được cái rỗng ấy?” Sư thưa: “Toàn Khoát trọn chẳng tự dối.” Đức Sơn bảo: “Về sau chẳng được cô phụ lão Tăng.”—The next day, during a question-and-answer period, Te-Shan asked Yan-T’ou: “Did you just arrive here yesterday?” Yan-T’ou said: “Yes.” Te-Shan said: “Where have you studied to have come here with an empty head?” Yan-T’ou said: “For my entire life I won’t deceive myself.” Te-Shan said: “In that case, you won’t betray me.”
• Hôm khác đến
—One day, when Yan-T’ou was studying with Te-Shan, Yan-T’ou stood in the doorway and said to Te-Shan: “Sacred or mundane?” Te-Shan shouted. Yan-T’ou bowed. A monk told Tong-Shan about this. Tong-Shan said: “If it wan’t Yan-T’ou, then the meaning couldn’t be grasped.” Yan-T’ou said: “Old Tong-Shan doesn’t know right from wrong. He’s made a big error. At that time I lifted up with one hand and pushed down with one hand.”
•ở Đức Sơn làm trưởng ban trai phạn ( ). Một hôm cơm trễ, Đức Sơn ôm bát đến . phơi khăn lau, trông thấy Đức Sơn bèn nói: “Ông già nầy, chuông chùa chưa kêu, trống chưa đánh mà ôm bát đi đâu?”—Xue-Feng was working at Mount Te as a rice cook. One day the meal was late. Te-Shan appeared carrying his bowl to the hall. When Xue-Feng stepped outside to hang a rice cloth to dry, he spotted Te-Shan and said: “The bell hasn’t been rung and the drum hasn’t sounded. Where are you going with your bowl?”
• Đức Sơn. thuật việc nầy cho sư nghe. : “Cả thảy Đức Sơn chẳng hiểu câu rốt sau.”—Te-Shan then went back to the abbot’s room. Xue-Feng told Yan-T’ou about this incident. Yan-T’ou said: “Old Te-Shan doesn’t know the final word.”
• Đức Sơn nghe, saigọi sư đến , hỏi: “Ông chẳng lão Tăng sao?” Sư thưa nhỏ ý ấy—When Te-Shan heard about this, he had his attendant summon Yan-T’ou. Te-Shan then said to Yan-T’ou: Don’t you agree with me?” Yan-T’ou then told Te-Shan what he meant by his comments. Te-Shan then stopped questioning Yan-T’ou.
• Đến hôm sau, Đức Sơncó vẻ khác thường. Sư đến trước nhà Tăng vỗ tay cười to, nói: “Rất mừng! Ông già biết được câu rốt sau, người trong không bì được ông, chỉ sống được ba năm (quả nhiên ba năm sau Đức Sơn tịch)—The next day, Te-Shan went into the hall and addressed the monks. What he said was quite unlike his normal talk. Afterward, Yan-T’ou went to the front of the monk’s hall, clapped his hands, laughed out loud and exclaimed: “I’m happy that the old fellow who’s the head of the hall knows the last word after all.”
• Một hôm sư cùng, Khâm Sơn ba người họp nhau, bỗng dưng chỉ một chén nước. Khâm Sơn nói: “Nước trong, trăng hiện.” nói: “Nước trong, trăng chẳng hiện.” Sư đá chén nước rồi đi. Từ đó về sau, Khâm Sơn đến . Sư và nối pháp Đức Sơn—One day, Yan-T’ou was talking with Xue-Feng and Qin-Shan. Xue-Feng suddenly pointed at a basin of water. Qin-Shan said: “When the water is clear the moon comes out.” Xue-Feng said: “When the water is clear the moon does not come out.” Yan-T’ou kicked over the basin and walked away.
• Sư cùng
—One day, Yan-T’ou and Xue-Feng were leaving the mountain. Te-Shan asked: “Where are you going?” Yan-T’ou said: “We’re going down off the mountain for awhile.” Te-Shan said: “What are you going to do later?” Yan-T’ou said: “Not forget.” Te-Shan said: “Why do you speak thus?” Yan-T’ou said: “Isn’t it said that only a person whose wisdom exceeds his teacher’s is worthy to transmit the teaching, and one only equal to his teacher has but half of his teacher’s virtue?” Te-Shan said: “Just so. Just so. Sustain and uphold the great matter.” The two monks bowed and left Te-Shan.
• Khi Đức Sơn mất, Toàn Khoát được 35 tuổi, ông đãqua sự ít lâu. Sau đó các học trò lại ông, và ông viện trưởng một lớn—When Te-Shan died, Yan-T’ou was thirty-five years old. After he had lived in solitude for some time, students began to gather around him and he became the abbot of a large monastery.
•vị Tăng hỏi: “Không thầy lại có chỗ chăng?” Sư đáp: “Trước tiếng lông xưa nát.” Vị Tăng nói: “Kẻ đến thì sao?” Sư nói: “Đâm lủng con mắt.” Vị Tăng hỏi: “Thế nào là ý từ Ấn sang?” Sư đáp: “Dời ngọn núi Lô đi, ta sẽ vì ông nói.”—Once a monk asked: “Without a teacher, is there still a place for the body to manifest or not?” Yan-T’ou said: “Before the sound, an old ragged thief.” The monk said: “When he grandly arrives, then what?” Yan-T’ou said: “Pokes out the eye.” A monk asked: “What is the meaning of the Patriarch’s coming from the west?” Yan-T’ou said: “When you move Mount Lu to this place, I’ll tell you.”
• Trong thời hổn loạn vào cuối đời nhà Đường. Một hôm các toán cướp tấn công
—It was a chaotic period during the decline of the T’ang dynasty. One day, robber bands local bandits came to attack the temple. Other monks, forewarned, fled; only Master Yan-T’ou remained in the monastery. The bandits found him sitting in meditation, disappointed and engraged because there was no booty there, the head of the bandits brandished his knife and stabbed Yan-T’ou. Yan-T’ou remained composed, then let out a resounding scream and died. The sound was heard for ten miles around. The sound is renowned in the tradition as “Yan-T’ou’s cry.” This cry has presented a knotty problem to many Zen students for so long, whose conception of the life and death of a Zen master this story did not match. This was also the case for the great Japanese master, Hakuin Zenji. Only when Hakuin had realized enlightenment did he understand, and he cried out: “Truly, Yan-T’ou is alive, strong and healthy.”
Sư nhằm ngày mồng tám tháng tư năm 887 sau Tây Lịch—Yan-T’ou died on the eighth day of the fourth month of the year 887 A.D.