Chapter 2

01/06/20193:25 CH(Xem: 172)
Chapter 2


TIẾNG ANH CHO NGƯỜI MỚI HỌC PHẬT
Tác giảTrí Thành - Lê Văn Được
Nhà xuất bản Tổng Hợp Thành Phố Hồ Chí Minh 2018

 

CHAPTER 2

LEAVING THE PALACE

(Rời hoàng cung)

UNIT 6:

THE ROYAL PLEASURES PALACE

(Hoàng cung vui thú)

Despite his father's best intentions, Prince Siddhartha discovered the true nature of the human’s life. During an excursion outside the palace walls, he saw things that caused him to think deeply about all the suffering in the world. He knew then that he would have to radically change his life in order to find the answers he was looking for.

To stop the prince from thinking about leaving home, King Suddhodana built a pleasure palace for Siddhartha and Yasodhara. Dancers and singers entertained them day and night, and only young people were allowed into the palace. The king did not want Siddhartha to know that everybody gets sick, grows old and will die. But the prince was not happy. He wanted to know what was the life of the people living outside the palace walls.

NEW WORDS

despite /dI'spaIt/ preposition: mặc dù, bất chấp

  • Despite the cold wind, the monks went out without their coats.

( cơn gió lạnh, các tăng sĩ vẫn đi mà không có áo khoác.)

intention /In'ten.ò∂n/ noun: ý định

  • He's full of good intentions and he does all for them! [C]

(Ngài có đủ thiện ý và làm mọi điều vì chúng sinh.)

true /tru:/ adjective [before noun] -r, -st: đúng, có thật

  • He claims to know the true identity of life.

(Ngài cho biết mình đã rõ lẽ thật của cuộc đời.)

nature /'neI.tò∂r, -tò∂`/ noun [U not after the]: thiên nhiên, tính chất, bản chất

  • He's very interested in nature of truth.

(Ngài rất quan tâm đến bản chất của sự thật.)

human /'hju:.m∂n/ adjective: thuộc về loài người, chúng sinh

  • The fault was due to human error.

(Lỗi này là do con người.)

condition /k∂n'dIò.∂n/ noun [U]: điều kiện, tình trạng

  • His condition is improving after having a bowl of milk.

(Tình hình của ngài tiến triển sau khi dùng bát sữa.)

excursion /Ik'sk∂:.ò∂n, - ʒ∂n, -'sk∂:r-/ noun [C]: chuyến tham quan

  • Next week they're going on an excursion out of the palace.

(Tuần tới họ định tham quan ngoài cung điện)

cause /kɔ:z/ noun, verb: gây ra, nguyên nhân

  • Devils had been the cause of all troubles. [C]

(Điềm xấu là nguyên nhân mọi rắc rối.)

deeply /'di:.plI/ adverb: một cách sâu xa

  • They’re deeply grateful to Buddha.

(Họ rất biết ơn Đức Phật.)

suffering /'sLf.∂r.Iη, "-∂`-/ noun: nỗi khổ, phiền não

  • The war will cause human suffering. [U]

(Chiến tranh sẽ gây đau khổ cho nhân loại.)

radically /'ræd.I.kli/ adverb: hoàn hảo

  • The mind has changed radically as a result of the increased use of meditation systems.

(Chuyển tâm khả quan là nhờ gia tăng dùng biện pháp thiền định.)

in order to /'ɔ:.d∂r, 'ɔ:r.d∂`/ prep: để mà

  • Correction in mind is the way in order to become a good person.

(Chỉnh tâm là cách để thành người tốt.)

looking for /lUkIη/ verb [T]: tìm kiếm

  • He's looking for the truth.

(Ngài đang tìm kiếm chân lý.)

pleasure /'pleʒ.∂r, -∂`/ noun: dục lạc

  • His visits used to give the king such pleasure. [U]

(Chuyến viếng thăm của ngài từng làm cho vua vui thích.)

Yasodhara (n): Da-du-đà-la

entertain /en.t∂'teIn, -∂`-/ verb: tiêu khiển

  • He hired a magician to entertain the prince at the party. [T]

(Ông thuê một vị phù thủy để giúp vui thái tử lúc dự tiệc.)

allow /∂'laU/ verb [T]: cho phép

  • People must not be allowed these temporary problems to affect the prince.

(Không ai được phép gây rắc rối ảnh hưởng đến thái tử.)

like /laIk/ preposition, conjunction: giống như

  • He spoke like he was a sage.

(Ngài thuyết giảng như vị hiền triết.)

  1. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. gets                        B. grows                C. singers
  2. A. saw                        B. palace               C. walls
  3. A. caused                  B. wanted             C. lived
  4. A. nature                   B. stop                   C. built
  5. A. pleasure                B. sick                   C. palace

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. suffering       B. answers            C. entertained
  2. A. despite           B. everybody        C. condition
  3. A. allowed         B. outside             C. radically
  4. A. excursion      B. happy               C. palace
  5. A. intentions      B. discovered       C. Siddhartha

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. King Suddhodana got Prince Siddhartha to see the best.
  2. After the trip, Siddhartha felt very happy.
  3. His father wanted the couple to enjoy life beyond the palace.
  4. Elderly people were allowed into the palace.
  5. The prince wanted all to be happy.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. What did his son find out?
  2. What did he decide after the excursion?
  3. Who entertained them?
  4. Who get sick, grows old and will die?
  5. What did he wonder?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

21. true

22. human

 

23. excursion

24. cause

25. suffer

26. radically

27. in order to

28. pleasure

29. entertain

 

30. like

a. completely

b. to experience physical or mental pain

c. right

d. with the purpose of

e. enjoyment, happiness or satisfaction

f. of people

g. in the same way as

h. a short journey made for pleasure

i. the reason why something bad, happens

j. to keep people amused

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these above words in the gap

[EXCURSION - RADICALLY - ENTERTAINED - IN ORDER NOT TO - PLEASURE - HUMAN - SUFFER - NATURE - CONDITION - CAUSE]

  1. The ............. body is composed of 80% water.
  2. Next week we're going on a/an ............. to the Buddhist relics.
  3. Devadatta had been the ............. of the Buddha’s troubles.
  4. It's terrible to see people ............. so much.
  5. Your belief is not ............. different from my own.
  6. I agreed to her suggestion ............. upset her.
  7. The Bhuddha’s visit used to give his father such ..............
  8. Siddhartha loved much of .............
  9. Leaving the luxurious life, Siddhartha lived in bad ............. in the forest.
  10. Suddhodana had his son ............. in the palace.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

41.  Siddhartha was kept ............. three palaces

42.  Siddhartha was prevented ............. all commonplace things.

43.  Siddhartha lived ............. the luxury ............. his palaces.

44.  ............. the first time ............. his life, Siddhartha saw the dead.

45.  He came across a funeral ceremony ............. the side ............. a river.

B. Drills: Insert the right place of gerunds

  1. The prince suggested Kapilavatthu. (leaving)
  2. Siddhartha's life was known the most common outline of the nature. (being)
  3. Siddhartha stopped his wealthy and pleasure life. (raising)
  4. Yasodhara could not ban his the palace. (leaving)
  5. People suffered from sick. (being)

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Put the words in order of a complete sentence

  1. their son’s excursion / The king / arranged / carefully.
  2. not/ Siddhartha/ the kind of suffering/ should/ see.
  3. was / his / Chandaka / and / squire / friend.
  4. will / die / get / and / old / All / of / us / sick,.
  5. The / had / to / humanity / undergo / suffering.

B. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation

  1. Siddhartha / grow up / be / strong / handsome / young man.
  2. Siddhartha / see / four sights / sick man / poor man / beggar / corpse.
  3. He / filled / sorrow / suffering.
  4. Only beauty / health / surround / Siddhartha.

60. The prince / trained / arts / war.

UNIT 7:

THE FOUR SIGHTS

(Bốn cảnh khổ)

After some time the prince was not happy living in the palace. He wanted to go outside and see how other people lived. He went out with his attendant, Channa. They left the palace four times.

On the first trip, the prince saw an old man. He came to know that everyone had to grow old.

On the second trip, the prince saw a sick man. He came to know that everyone could get sick any time.

On the third trip, he saw a dead body. He knew that everyone would have to die one day.

On the fourth trip, the prince saw a monk who was happy and calm. He made up his mind to leave home so that he could help people to find peace and happiness.

NEW WORDS

outside /aUt'saId/ adverb [not gradable], preposition, adjective [not gradable]: bên ngoài

  • It was a lovely day outside the palace.

(Một ngày thật đẹp bên ngoài cung điện.)

Channa (n): Xa-nặc

trip /trIp/ noun [C]: chuyến đi

  •  I don't think we can afford a trip to India.

(Chắc tôi không đủ tiền đi Ấn Độ.)

body /'bɔd.i, 'bɔ:.di/ noun [C]: cơ thể, thân tứ đại

  • Our body has earth, water, wind, and fire.

(Thân tứ đại của ta gồm đất, nước, gió, lửa)

monk /mLηk/ noun [C]: tu sĩ, tăng sĩ

  •  Monks do not marry and usually live together in a monastery, esp. to pray, worship and study.

(Các tăng sĩ không được lập gia đình, thường sống chung trong tu viện, đặc biệt để cầu nguyện, thờ phượng, tu học.)

calm /kɑ:m/ adjective -er, -est: điềm tĩnh

  • He has a very calm manner.

(Ngài có phong cách rất an lạc.)

made up one’s mind /maInd/ (v): quyết định

  • His mind is made up.

(Ngài đã quyết định.)

help /help/ verb: cứu tế, hỗ trợ

  • There are many ways that we can help with.

(Ta giúp người bằng nhiều cách.)

peace /pi:s/ noun [U]: an bình, thanh bình

  • We all need peace.

(Mọi người chúng ta cần an bình.)

I. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. trip                      B. find                        C. mind
  2. A. palace                 B. prince                    C. leave
  3. A. dead                    B. peace                     C. left
  4. A. home                   B. up                           C. monk
  5. A. first                     B. other                      C. third

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. attendant         B. happiness           C. body
  2. A. second             B. people                C. outside
  3. A. everybody       B. happy                  C. living
  4. A. homeless         B. return                  C. palace
  5. A. helpful             B. happily               C. thirteen

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. He would know happy lives in the royal building.
  2. They were outside the palace many times.
  3. People never become ill.
  4. One who lives will die.
  5. At last the prince saw a happy and helpless monk.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. How was Siddhartha in the capital?
  2. What was Channa?
  3. What did the prince see at the beginning?
  4. In what time did the prince see a sick man?
  5. Why did he decide to go away?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

21. outside

 

22. attendant

 

23. Channa

 

24. trip

25. body

26. monk

27. calm

28. made up one’s mind

29. help

30. peace

a. the whole physical structure of a person, animal, etc.

b. a man with religious belief living together in a monastery

c. a royal servant of Prince Siddhartha

d. peaceful and quiet

e. decide

f. the outer part of something

g. lack from worry

h. one whose job is to be in a place and help the monk.

i. a journey

j. to serve something to someone

 B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

DISCIPLE - ARAHANTHOOD - CHANNA - SERVANT - ENLIGHTENED - SIGHTS - MONK - CALM - BUDDHA - SANGHA

31. The prince was not ............. living in the palace.

32. Prince Siddhartha was to become the ..............

33. Channa became a ............. of the Buddha.

34. Channa achieved .............

35.  Channa was a ............. in the court of King Suddhodarna.

36. Channa explained the ............. of an elderly man, a sick person, a dead person.

37. Siddhartha ............. as Gautama Buddha.

38. Channa became a Buddhist ..............

39. Channa joined the ..............

40. ............. eventually became an arahant.

IV. GRAMMAR

A. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition

41.  ............. Theravada Buddhism, bhikkhu is the term ............. monk.

42.  Channa was a servant ............. the court ............. King Suddhodarna.

43.  Channa was entrusted ............. attend ............. the needs ............. Siddhartha.

44.  Channa served ............. the charioteer pulled ............. the horse Kanthaka.

45.  Channa was entrusted ............. Siddhartha ............. accompany him ............. his escape ............. the palace.

B. CLAUSES

Clauses

Examples

Noun Clause

He came to know that everyone had to grow old.

He came to know that everyone could get sick any time.

He knew that everyone would have to die one day.

Adjective Clause

The prince saw a monk who was happy and calm.

Adverb Clause

He made up his mind to leave home so that he could help people to find peace and happiness.

 

Drills: Fill in the blanks with the following connectives

THAT - WHO - AFTER - SO - THAT - WHO

46.  The Buddha said ............. we live in suffering world.

47.  Siddhartha ............. saw the Four sights met his subjects in the Sakya capital Kapilavastu.

48.  ............. Siddhartha had reached the destination, he compelled Channa to return the palace.

49.  Channa guided him ............. he arrived at the edge of the Anoma River.

50.  The monks ............. live in monasteries have an important function in traditional Asian society.

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Put the words in order of a complete sentence

  1. Monks / Channa / abused / other / the.
  2. A / become / Buddhist / candidate / wishes / to / monk.
  3. Both bhikkhus / in the morning / and samaneras / eat only.
  4. forbid / their rules / of money / the use.
  5. The third / of the Triple Gem / of BuddhaDhamma, Sangha/ the monks / are

B. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation

  1. Channa / learn / decree.
  2. Channa / feel / remorse / behaviour.
  3. local people / give food / monks / eat.
  4. monks / be / part / Sangha.
  5. monks / nuns / form / Sangha.

UNIT 8:

THE PRINCE LEAVES HOME

(Vị thái tử xuất gia)

Siddhartha went quietly to see his newborn son for the last time. His wife was sleeping with the baby beside her, her hand resting on the baby's head. The prince said to himself, "If I try to move her hand so I can take the child for one last cuddle I fear I will wake her and she will prevent me from going. No! I must go, but when I have found what I am looking for, I shall come back and see him and his mother again."

Siddhartha left the palace. It was midnight, and the prince was on his white horse Kanthaka with Channa, his faithful servant, holding on to its tail. He was going away to try to understand old age, sickness and death. He rode to the bank of a river and dismounted from his horse. He removed his jewellery and princely clothes and gave them to Channa to return to the king. Then the prince took his sword and cut his long hair, put on monks robes, took a begging bowl and told Channa to go back with Kanthaka to the palace.

NEW WORDS

newborn /'nju:.bɔ:n, 'nu:.bɔ:rn/ adjective [before noun; not gradable]: sơ sinh

  • The baby could walk when be newborn

(Phật có thể đi khi đản sanh.)

beside /bI'saId/ preposition: bên cạnh

  • Come and meditate here beside me.

(Hãy đến đây và ngồi thiền định bên cạnh tôi.)

move /mu:v/ verb: di chuyển

  • You shouldn’t move in meditation.

(Anh không nên cựa quậy lúc thiền định.)

cuddle /'kLd.l/ verb: âu yếm

  • He cuddled the baby and eventually it was asleep [T].

(Ngài vuốt ve đứa bé, cuối cùng nó ngủ.)

fear /fI∂r, fIr/ verb: sợ

  • What do you fear most? [T]

(Bạn sợ gì nhất.)

wake /weIk/ verb past simple woke or waked, past participle woken or waked or US also woke: tỉnh giấc

  • Did you wake at all during the night? [I]

(Suốt đêm anh có tỉnh giấc không.)

prevent /prI'vent/ verb [T]: ngăn ngừa

  • His disability prevents him from walking.

(Khuyết tật làm anh ta không đi lại được.)

midnight /'mId.naIt/ noun [U]: nửa đêm

  • There was a great moon at midnight.

(Trăng tròn sáng lúc nửa đêm.)

faithful /'feIq.f∂l/ adjective: trung thành

  • If a person or animal is faithful, they are loyal.

(Nếu người hay động vật trung thành, thì chúng không phản bội.)

servant /'s3:.v∂nt, 's3:r-/ noun [C]: người hầu

  • Servant is doing jobs such as cooking and cleaning.

(Người giúp việc làm những việc như là nấu ăn và giặt giũ.)

tail /teIl/ noun [C]: cái đuôi

  • A dog wags its tail.

(Con chó vẫy đuôi.)

ride /raId/ verb, past simple rode, past participle ridden: cưỡi ngựa, xe

  • He learned to ride a horse when he was six. [T]

(Ngài học cưỡi ngựa lúc lên sáu.)

bank /bæηk/ noun [C]: bờ sông

  • These flowers generally grow on sloping river banks.

(Những bông hoa này thường mọc ở triền sông.)

dismount /dI'smaUnt/ verb [I]: xuống ngựa

  • He dismounted Kanthaka at the bank.

(Ngài bước xuống con Kiềng Tắc cạnh bờ sông.)

remove /rI'mu:v/ verb [T]: dời đổi, dọn

  • The men came to remove the rubbish.

(Người ta đến để đổ rác.)

jewellery UK and ANZ, US jewelry /'dʒu:.∂l.ri/ noun [U]: nữ trang

  • Tourists have been advised not to wear expensive jewellery.

(Các du khách được khuyên không đeo nữ trang đắt tiền.)

clothes /kl∂Uðz, kloUðz/ plural noun: y phục

  • Shopping for clothes is one of life's luxuries.

(Đi mua sắm quần áo là một sự xa xỉ trong đời.)

sword /sɔ:d, sɔ:rd/ noun [C]: gươm, kiếm

  • A knight drew his sword to answer the monk.

(Vị hiệp sĩ rút gươm để trả lời thiền sư.)

put on phrasal verb [M] esp. UK: mặc vào

  • He put on a robe and walk away.

(Ông ta khoác y phục rồi bỏ đi.)

robe /r∂Ub, roUb/ noun [C]: y phục

  • The Queen wore a long velvet robe.

(Vị Nữ hoàng mặc áo nhung dài.)

beg /beg/ verb -gg-: ăn xin

  • There are more and more homeless young people begging on the streets these days. [I]

(Ngày càng có nhiều thanh niên vô gia cư ăn xin trên đường.)

bowl /b∂Ul, boUl/ noun [C]: tô, bát

  • He ate a bowl of cereal before noon.

(Ngài dùng bát cơm trước ngọ.)

  1. PRONUNCIATION

A. Sounds: Pick out one underlined sound different from the others

  1. A. hand               B. head                    C. said
  2. A. holding          B. old                       C. horse
  3. A. from               B. come                   C. monks
  4. A. sword             B. bowl                    C. long
  5. A. age                 B. begging               C. death

B. Accent Marks: Pick out one word with different stress from the others

  1. A. quietly           B. faithful             C. removed
  2. A. princely         B. return               C. servant
  3. A. himself          B. cuddle              C. palace
  4. A. midnight        B. baby                  C. prevent
  5. A. beside            B. dismounted     C. understand

II. READING

A. Choose whether the statement is True or False

  1. Before leaving, Siddhartha looked at his son.
  2. Siddhartha hesitated to kiss his son.
  3. The prince did not stay in the palace.
  4. He climped up the horse on the bank of a river.
  5. Siddhartha became a beggar.

B. Read and answer the following questions

  1. How did Yasodhara sleep?
  2. What did he determine before leaving?
  3. Who did Siddhartha go with?
  4. In this text, why did Siddhartha want to leave?
  5. What did Siddhartha drop?

III. BUDDHIST TERMS

A. Definition: Match the meaning of word below

  1. Kanthaka

 

  1. rest

 

  1. fear
  2. servant
  3. jewellery

 

  1. put on

 

  1. robe

 

 

  1. beg
  2. bowl

 

  1. dismount

 

 

 

a. an unpleasant thought of something dangerous

b. a favourite horse of Prince Siddhartha

c. to ask for food from monks

d. a period of time for relaxing

e. valuable objects worn on clothes or on the body

f. to cover part of the body with a robe

g. a long, loose-fitting piece of clothing worn on very formal occasions

h. to get off a bicycle or a horse

i. a person who is employed in another person's house

j. a round open container for holding food

B. Gap Filling: Try to fill these words in the gap

PRINCELY - BROKEN - KANTHAKA - PALACE - SENT

  1. He took his horse ............. and his groom Chandaka with him.
  2. Prince Siddhartha left the ............. to seek a greater understanding of the world.
  3. Siddhartha took off his ........ robes and cut his hair.
  4. He .......... his groom and horse back to the palace.
  5. Following the departure of Siddhartha, Kanthaka died of a ............. heart.

IV. GRAMMAR

  1. Preposition: Fill in the blank with correct preposition
  1. Siddhartha needed to go ............. the palace.
  2. Siddhartha was shielded him ............. thoughts ............. pain and suffering.
  3. Channa accompanied Siddhartha ............. Kapilavastu.
  4. Kanthaka was the horse used ............. Siddhartha.
  5. Kanthaka was able to jump ............. the river.

B. Rules

1. Possessive Case

People

the baby's head

Animals

Kanthaka’s saddle

Time

century’s monuments

Places

Kapilavastu’s palace

Drills: Add possessive case

  1. Siddhartha journey began alone.
  2. Kanthaka was admired as the horse skills
  3. He contemplated man suffering.
  4. Kanthaka is described in relation to Siddhartha and Yasodhara marriage.
  5. Devadatta was defeated by Siddhartha Kanthaka.

C. Modals

Ability

I can take the child for one last cuddle

Willing, Promise

I will wake her

she will prevent me from going

Obligation, Possibility

I must go

Promise

I shall come back

Intention

He was going away to try to understand old age, sickness and death

Drills: Explain the meaning of modals

  1. Siddhartha would renounce the throne to become a spiritual leader.
  2. Kanthaka’s figures will be found at the main stupa.
  3. Kanthaka would achieve enlightenment.
  4. Siddhartha must compel Channa to return.
  5. Kanthaka could attend dharma talks by Gautama Buddha.

V. WRITING

A. Transformation: Put the words in order of a complete sentence

  1. left / Siddhartha / aboard Kanthaka / Kapilavastu.
  2. Siddhartha's/ Channa / returned / weapons and hair.
  3. Kanthaka / to a forest / by the edge of the Anoma River / guided / out of the town / him
  4. the horse pulling the chariot / Kanthaka / was / After Siddhartha's marriage.
  5. Kanthaka / Chandaka / Siddhartha / of his kneeling groom / took leave / and his horse.

B. Sentence Making: Write sentences based on the cues and their translation

  1. Kanthaka / reborn / brahmin.
  2. Kanthaka / widely / observed / Buddhist art
  3. Kanthaka / carved / stupas.
  4. Kanthaka / displayed / museums / London / Calcutta.
  5. Channa / be / head royal servant.
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