BẢN DỊCH VIỆT
Danh và sắc
Mắt làm duyên cho sắc,
Khi mắt, sắc và thức
Thọ làm duyên, ái sinh
Khi có thủ: có hữu
Hữu này là
Chú thích 1
Bản dịch Việt,, chương XXVI, 5 bản dịch dưới đây:
1. Bản dịch Thupten Jinpa (2009) (dịch từ Tạng-Anh) trong The Dalai Lama . The Middle Way. Faith grounded in Reason. 2009
2. Bản dịch Ngawang Samten & Garfield (2006) (dịch từ Tạng- Anh). trong Tsong Khapa . Ocean of Reasoning. 12006
3. Bản dịch Sanskrit- English của K.K. Inada (1970, reprinted 1993)
4. Bản dịch Sanskrit – English của Louis de La Vallé Poussin 1970
5. Bảnthích—Thanh Mục, do dịch Hán, và Thiện Siêu dịch Việt (2001).
 Bản dịch Tibetan- English
1. Obscured by ignorance and for the sake of rebirth we create the three kinds of action; it is these actions constructing [existence] that propel us through transmigration.
2. With volition as its condition, consciousness enters transmigation.
Once conscious has entered, name and form come to be.
3. Once name and form have developed, the six sense spheres come into being.
Depending on the six sense spheres, contact come into being.
4. It arises only in dependence on eye, form, and apprehension; thus, in dependence on name and form, consciousness arises.
5. The convergence of the three - eye, form, and consciousness – this is contact; from contact feeling comes into being.
6. Conditioned by feeling is craving; one craves because of feeling;
When one craves, there is grasping; the four kinds of grasping [take place].
7. Where there is grasping, the becoming of the grasper thoroughly comes to be.
Were there no grasping, being free, there would be no becoming.
8. This becoming is also the five aggregates, and from becoming emerges birth. Aging, death, and sorrow, grief, suffering, and so on,
9. As well as unhappiness and agitation: these come from birth. What comes into being is only a mass of suffering.
10. The root of cyclic existence is action; therefore, the wise do not act. The unwise one is an agent; the wise one is an agent; the wise one, seeing suchness, is not.
11. When ignorance has ceased, action will not arise. Ignorance ceases through insight into meditation on suchness.
12. Through the cessation of this and that, this and that do not manifest; in this way the entire mass of suffering ceases completely.
 Bản dịch Tibetan - English
1. The three kinds of actions that lead to rebirth,
Performed by one obscured by ignorance,
Are the karma that impel one
To further transmigration.
2. Having action as its conditions,
Consciousness enters transmigration.
One consciousness has entered transmigration,
Name and form come to be.
3. Once name and form come to be,
The six senses come into being.
Depending on the six senses,
Contact comes into being.
4. That is only dependent
On eye and form and retention.
Thus depending on name and form,
5. That which is assembled from the three –
Eye, and form and consciousness –
Is contact. From contact
Feeling comes to be.
6. Conditioned by feeling is craving.
Craving arises for feeling.
When one craves,
The four objects of appropriation will be appropriated.
7. When there is appropriation,
The existence of the appropriator arises.
If he did not appropriate,
Then being freed, he would not come into existence.
8. This existence is also the five aggregates.
From existence comes birth,
Old age, and death and misery and
Suffering and lamentation…
9. Unhappiness and agitation.
All these arise as a consequence of birth.
Thus what comes into being
Is only a mass of suffering.
10. The root of cyclic existence is action.
Therefore, the wise one does not act.
Therefore the unwise is the agent.
The wise one is not, because he sees reality.
11. With the cessation of ignorance,
Action will not arise.
The cessation of ignorance occurs through
Exercising wisdom in meditating on this.
12. Through the cessation of this and that,
This and that will not be manifest.
That which is only a mass of suffering
Will thus completely cease.
Note: Having abandoning ignorance, action will have ceased. Similarly, through the cessation of the earlier limbs – the “this and that”—the later limbs—“this and that”—will not arise.
 Bản dịch Sanskrit-English: K.K. Inada:
1. Those who are deluded by ignorance create their own threefold mental conformations in order to cause rebirth and by their deeds go through the various forms of life.
Note: The three fold mental conformations refer to those related to the body, speech and mind.
The various forms of life refer to the following: hellish beings, hungry spirits, beats, evil spirits, human beings and heavenly beings.
2. The consciousness (vijnana), conditioned by the mental conformations, establishes itself with respect to the various forms of life. When the consciousness is established, name (nama) and form (rupa) are infused or become apparent.
3. When name and form are infused or become apparent the six ayatanas (i.e. seats of perception) arise. With the rise of six ayatanas, touch evolves.
4. As in the composite relation nature of the eye and its material form, consciousness arises in a similar relational nature of name and form.
5. The harmonious triadic nature of form, consciousness and eye issues forth touch. And from the touch arises feeling.
6. Relationally conditioned by feeling, craving arises because it “thirsts after” the object of feeling. In the process of craving, the fourfold clinging are seized.
Note: Reference to clinging of passions, dogmatic views, rigid rules of conduct, and selfhood (kama, drsti, sila, atman)
7. When there is clinging perception, the perceiver generates being (bhava) .When there is no clinging perception, he will be freed and there will be no being.
8. Being is (always in reference to) the five skandhas and from being birth arises. Old age - death, suffering, etc., misery, grief….(continues to next verse.)
9. ….despair and mental disturbance arise from birth. In this manner the simple suffering attached to the skandhas comes into being.
10. Consequently, the ignorant creates the mental conformations which form the basis of samsaric life. Thus the ignorant is the doer while the wise, seeing the truth (tattva), does not create.
11. When ignorance is banished mental conformations do not arise. But the extinction of ignorance is dependent upon the wisdom of practicing (the cessation of the twelvefold causal analysis of being).
12. By the cessation of the various links of the causal analysis, each and every subsequent link will not arise (i.e. become a hindrance). And thus this simple suffering attached to the skandhas is rightfully extinguished.
 Bản dịch Sanskrit-English
1. Three dispositions leading to rebirth are formed by
unexplained ignorance which moves by means of those actions.
2. Consciousness is connected with past disposition and conditioning.
Wherein consciousness deeply enters, name and form [mind/body] is infused.
3. Where name and form is infused, six sense - spheres arise.
The six senses having arrived, contact comes forth.
4. Form and attention are dependent on the eye.
Name and form is dependent on consciousness coming forth.
5. The conjunction of the three, which are eye, consciousness, and form, is contact. And from contact, feeling comes forth.
6. Craving is conditioned by feeling, indeed, craves because of feeling.
He is laid hold of by grasping fourfold craving.
7. Where grasping exists, the being who grasps is set in motion.
Indeed, if there would be no grasping, he would be released and there would be no being [who grasps].
8. He, the being, is five skandhas and from being, rebirth is set in motion, together with lamentations, afflictions, suffering, etc …, old age and death.
9. Together with despair, all this set in motion from birth.
Thus is the origin of this entire mass of suffering.
10. Hence the ignorant compose dispositions, the roots of samsara.
Therefore, the ignorant create while the wise, seeing reality, do not.
11. Since the destruction of dispositions is the cessation of ignorance,
cessation of ignorance is from the practice based on knowledge.
12. With the cessation of [ignorance], which [link on the causal chain] advance to what [next link]?
Thus the entire mass of suffering is rightly ceased.
 Bản dịch Phạn- Hán của
4. Nhân ư
6. Tòng hữu nhi
8. Thị vị vi
9. Dĩ thị sự diệt cố
1.bị , làm khởi lên ba , vì khởi lên ấy, nên phải theo mà sáu nẻo.
2. Vìcủa các , nên phải chịu mang thân trong sáu nẻo, vì có thức đắm trước nên làm danh và sắc.
3. Do danh, sắc, nên sinh ra , sáu căn, và sáu thức mà sinh ra .
4. Nhânliền sinh ra ba thọ, nhân ba thọ mà sinh ra .
5. Nhânmà có bốn thủ, nhân thủ mà có hữu, nếu người mà thủ, thời không có hữu.
6. Do hữu mà có sinh, do sinh mà có già chết, do già chết nên có cácbuồn lo.
7. Các việc như vậy đều do sinh mà có, chỉ vìấy mà tập .
8. Như thế gọi là, do các làm cội gốc, người gây tạo, còn người trí thì không làm.
9. Do sự này diệt, nên sự kia; chỉ khi nào thân được , như vậy mới là thật diệt.
Chú thích 2
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